Category Archive: H

Apr 27

Dr. J. Allen Hynek

hynekDr. Josef Allen Hynek, was a United States astronomer, professor, and ufologist. He is perhaps best remembered for his UFO research. Hynek acted as scientific adviser to UFO studies undertaken by the U.S. Air Force under three consecutive names: Project Sign ( 1947–1949 ), Project Grudge ( 1949–1952 ), and Project Blue Book (1952 to 1969). For decades afterwards, he conducted his own independent UFO research, developing the Close Encounter classification system, and is widely considered the father of the concept of scientific analysis of both reports and, especially, trace evidence purportedly left by UFOs.

UFO reports differ in many details. But there are a number of similarities that recur in such features as shape, maneuverability, appearance, disappearance, sound and color. There are several basic observational categories into which sighting reports may be classified.

A. Relatively Distant Sightings, or Distant Encounters. ( DE-I Through DE-III )

Nocturnal Lights or ( DE-I ): These are sightings of well-defined lights in the night sky whose appearance and/or motion are not explainable in terms of conventional light sources. The lights appear most often as red, blue, orange or white. They form the largest group of UFO reports.

Daylight Disk or ( DE-II ): Daytime sightings are generally of oval or disc-shaped, metallic-appearing objects. They can appear high in the sky or close to the ground, and they are often reported to hover. They can seem to disappear with astounding speed.

Radar-Visual cases or ( DE-III ): Of special significance are unidentified “blips” on radar screens that coincide with and confirm simultaneous visual sightings by the same or other witnesses. These cases are infrequent.

B. Relatively Close Sightings ( within 200 yards ) or Close Encounters. ( CE-IV Through CE-VII)

Close Encounters of the First Kind ( CE-I ). Though the witness observes a UFO nearby, there appears to be no interaction with either the witness or the environment.

Close Encounters of the Second Kind ( CE-II ). These encounters include details of interaction between the UFO and the environment which may vary from interference with car ignition systems and electronic gear to imprints or burns on the ground and physical effects on plants, animals and humans.

Close Encounters of the Third Kind ( CE-III ). In this category, occupants of a UFO – entities that are human-like ( “humanoid” ) or not human-like in appearance – have been reported. There is usually no direct contact or communication with the witness. However, in recent years, reports of incidents involving very close contact – even detainment of witnesses, have increased.

The Kinds of Evidence

In addition to eyewitness reports, scientific evidence for the presence of something very unusual falls in these categories:

  1. Physical Traces. Compressed and dehydrated vegetation, broken tree branches, and imprints in the ground have all been reported. Sometimes a soil sample taken from an area where a UFO had been seen close to the ground will be determined, through laboratory analysis, to have undergone heating or other chemical changes not true of control sample.
  2. Medical Records. Medical verification of burns, eye inflammations, temporary blindness, and other physiological effects attributed to encounters with UFOs – even the healing of previous conditions, can also constitute evidence, especially when no other cause for the effect can be determined by the medical examiner.
  3. Radarscope Photos. A tape of traces from a radar screen on which a “blip” of a UFO is appearing is a powerful adjunct to a visual sighting, because it can be studied at leisure instead of during the heat of the moment of the actual sighting.
  4. Photographs. While it might seem that photographs would be the best evidence for UFOs, this has not been the case. Hoaxes can be exposed very easily. But even those photos that pass the test of instrumented analysis and/or computer enhancement often show nothing more than an object of unknown nature, usually some distance from the camera, and very often out of focus. For proper analysis of a photo, the negative must be available and the photographer, witnesses and circumstances must be known. In a few exceptional cases, photos do exist that have been thoroughly examined and appear to show a structured craft.

Since the creation of these classifications, there have been three new additions in regards to Close Encounters:

Close Encounters of the Fourth Kind ( CE-IV ), involves the person being unwillingly taken and experimented on inside the alien craft ( Otherwise known as abduction ).

Close Encounters of the Fifth Kind ( CE-V ), is when there is direct communication between aliens and humans. This is the rarest one of them all and very few people have experienced it.

Close Encounters of the Sixth Kind ( CE-VI ), is when contact between aliens and humans results in permanent injury, and in rare cases, even death.

And additionally, a Seventh.

Close Encounters of the Seventh Kind ( CE VII ), The Black Vault Encyclopedia Project proposes this as mating between a human being and extraterrestrial that produces a human-alien hybridization, usually called a Star Child. This concept similar to ideas promoted by ancient astronauts theorists like Erich von Däniken, Zecharia Sitchin and Robert K.G. Temple, in that extraterrestrials interacted with, perhaps interbred with and influenced ancient human beings in the past. This concept of CE VII is at odds with Hynek’s original concepts, however. Hynek’s CE III specifically avoided describing UFO occupants as “aliens” or “extraterrestrials”, contending that there was not enough evidence to determine if beings associated with UFOs had an objective physical reality, let alone to confirm their origins or motives.

Mar 14

Hans Holzer

Rob Hillstrom

Rob Hillstrom

Director / Chair Science at TEPI
Paranormal: Somewhat cliché but, my experiences began at a young age though I don’t recall making the “paranormal” association until the age of 9 when my grandmother died and returned for a visit. Through the years, I have given many phenomena more attention; from subtle dream images to apparent physical contact from “unseen” sources. I have been involved in independent research/study and investigation for about 30 years and began using some equipment about 20 years ago. I have been working with the Colorado based TEPI team since 2010. As a science oriented investigator, I am a bit of a contradiction. I believe the experience more so than the evidence. Simply because there can be many plausible explanations for most evidence. The experience on the other hand, can sometimes be very complex and difficult to explain easily. Professional: I have a Master of Science degree that essentially qualifies me to manage a multi-discipline team in their efforts to accomplish technical activities. (If I say more the MIB might show up.) My engineering background is primarily electronics but includes mechanical, astrophysics, and some aspects of thermal, optical, and audio. Previous careers were medical including paramedics and medical device technology (design, manufacturing, and training medical staff). I also dabbled heavily in photography before the wide spread use of digital imaging. Ideological: I was raised Presbyterian but allowed to find my own path. I studied Zen for a short time and explored many other faiths. In my late teens I attended a seminar on the subject of Quantum Physics and how it relates to our mind and consciousness; this was the turning point in my belief system. I did not become a scientific skeptic, I simply began to view nearly everything differently. I removed definitions I had learned and replaced them with relationships to my personal experiences and observations. Things once clearly defined as paranormal now had a plausible spin to them. Personal: In my spare time I write dark music, dark poetry, and horror/science fiction stories.
Rob Hillstrom

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hansParapsychologist and author of 138 books on Ghosts, Hauntings, Dreams, UFO’s, Astrology, Reincarnation, Healing, Paganism, Witchcraft, and other topics. Hans Holzer coined the term “ghost hunter.” He is especially known for his role in the Amityville case. He believes in using both scientific and psychic means to probe the paranormal.

Holzer was born January 29, 1920, in Vienna, Austria. His interest in the paranormal began in early childhood with a fascination for ghost stories and tales of Fairies related by an uncle. By age nine, he was writing poems and dramas.

In 1938, at the age of 18, He and his brother left Austria and immigrated to United States. Hans settled in New York City, where he remained the rest of his life. He enrolled in Columbia University, studying Far Easter culture. At the London College of Applied Science, he earned a master’s in comparative religion, followed by a Ph.D with a specialty in parapsychology.

Hans married once and had two daughters. He divorced after the birth of the second daughter.

He has taught parapsychology at the New York Institute of Technology and lectures extensively. Holzer also writes and produces television and radio talk shows. He has written numerous magazine articles.

Holzer has had some paranormal experiences, but does not emphasize their importance and says experiences are not necessary for an investigation. His first visual experience was in New York with his father in a penthouse apartment on Riverside Drive. Holzer was asleep in bed and woke up to see his dead mother dressed in white, pushing his head back onto the pillow. At the time, he was suffering from migraine headaches, and his head had slipped off the pillow during sleep. The action taken by his mother prevented a bad attack. Hans greeted his mother, and she disappeared.

Besides the term “ghost hunter,” Holzer coined other terms, among them “stays behinds,” for people who like to linger after death and thus become haunting ghosts; “ufonauts,” for ET visitors; and “the other side” for the afterlife realm. Of stay behinds, he says they frequently are people who lived in one place for a very long time. They are unaccustomed to any other place and discover after death that they are still where they were in life.

Unlike many paranormal investigators Hans- who calls himself a scientist- does not shy away from Mediums and psychics but, believes them to be the most critical assets to investigations because the dead can speak through them and deliver clear messages. He criticizes investigators who think that the only way to tackle the paranormal is with equipment. The only equipment he likes is a camera in the hands of a “psychic photographer,” a person who has a gift for capturing images of phenomena.

Hans says that 75 to 80 percent of haunting phenomena are imprints or recordings and not the presence of stuck souls. He has never been frightened during an investigation. He disbelieves in nonhuman entities, including Demons. In fact, Holzer says he doesn’t believe in anything, even the existence of ghosts. The supernatural does not exist, but rather is part of the natural order. He has particular objections to organized religion, which he says aims to distort truth and oppress people and make them obey the rules. He does not believe in religious concepts of heaven or hell.

Holzer believes the afterlife to be a world like a better version of the physical world. There are seven levels of consciousness concentric with this world, which cannot be perceived by the living is made only with the permission of Spirit Guides. Souls can choose to reincarnate.

Hans’s books are often reissued under new titles. Among his works are Hans Holzer’s The Supernatural Explaining the Unexplained (2003); Ghosts: True Encounters with the World Beyond (1983)’ a compilation of earlier work; and Hans Holzer’s Travel Guide to Haunted Houses: A Practical Guide to Places Haunted by Ghosts, Poltergeists and Spirits (1998), also a compilation. His wish is to be remembered as “a man who told the truth.” He died April 9, 2009, in New York City, N.Y.


Belanger, Jeff. “Dr. Hans Holzer-A Lifetime of Explaining the Unplained.” URL:

Brockway. Rev. Laurie Sue. ” An Interview with Famous ‘Ghost Hunter’ Hans Holzer.” URL: Casteel, Sean. “Interview with Dr. Hans Holzer.” URL:

Holzer, Hans. Ghosts: True Encounters with the World Beyond. Chicago: Black Dog and Levental Publishers, 1998.

Jan 13

Peter Hurkos

Ashley Ann Lewis

Ashley Ann Lewis

Director / Dept Chair Occult at National Paranormal Society
Ashley became interested in the paranormal at a young age, but at that young age she did not have much understanding in it at all. I wasn’t until 2010 that she really became interested. Thanks to a Resolve carpet cleaning can that flew across the room, Ashley among three others who witness what happen that night, they pulled a team together. Ashley is a heavy researcher and though she may find the answer to what she is searching for she’ll search even harder. She’s overly determined and takes her part in the paranormal field very seriously. Between working hard and spending every dime she had she became a found of a paranormal team that is based out of Historic Louisiana and was honored to take on a position as a Representative with The National Paranormal Society. There is still so much she does not understand which drives her to work even harder and to further educate herself on everything.
Ashley Ann Lewis

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Hurkos, Peter (1911-1988)
Prominent psychic born on May 21, 1911, as Peter Van der Hurk in Dordrecht, Holland. He worked as a merchant seaman before becoming a member of the Dutch underground movement in occupied Holland during World War II. He claimed that as a result of a fall from a ladder in 1941 he discovered a psychic faculty.

Hurkos was not able to make use of the new ability immediately, because he was arrested and imprisoned in Buchenwald, Germany, for the duration of World War II. Upon his return to Holland he found his psychic abilities too distracting for him to follow a normal occupation, and he began to appear on stage and television shows, demonstrating feats of ESP. In 1947 he began work as a psychic detective, his fame being derived from his abilities in tracing missing persons and objects and identifying criminals. While having some success, he also had his notable failures. For example, when he was brought in to assist the police in tracing the Boston Strangler, his psychic description had no relevance to Albert DeSalvo, who confessed to the crimes. Hurkos cooperated with police departments throughout Europe and the United States.

Hurkos was a controversial psychic. He promoted himself and his successes. He was brought to the United States in 1965 by Andrija Puharich, who tested his abilities over a two-and-a-half-year period. He was praised by police in New Jersey for his assistance in solving a murder case. However, various parapsychologists had different experiences with him. Tests by Charles T. Tart were negative, and Hurkos refused the invitations of J. B. Rhine to be tested at Duke University.

Hurkos died in Los Angeles, California, on May 25, 1988.

Jan 13

Kirby Hensley

Ashley Ann Lewis

Ashley Ann Lewis

Director / Dept Chair Occult at National Paranormal Society
Ashley became interested in the paranormal at a young age, but at that young age she did not have much understanding in it at all. I wasn’t until 2010 that she really became interested. Thanks to a Resolve carpet cleaning can that flew across the room, Ashley among three others who witness what happen that night, they pulled a team together. Ashley is a heavy researcher and though she may find the answer to what she is searching for she’ll search even harder. She’s overly determined and takes her part in the paranormal field very seriously. Between working hard and spending every dime she had she became a found of a paranormal team that is based out of Historic Louisiana and was honored to take on a position as a Representative with The National Paranormal Society. There is still so much she does not understand which drives her to work even harder and to further educate herself on everything.
Ashley Ann Lewis

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indexKIRBY HENSLEY (1911-1999)

Included here on this list, mostly because so many occultists buy fake degrees and church charters from his “church”. This nutty little preacher from North Carolina started a bogus church that made him thousands (The Universal Life Church in 1962) , because he would ordain anyone for money. He also started a bogus law school that was shut down, and even ran for President as all crackpots seem to do. The ULC even ordains atheists, Satanists, and even animals and inanimate objects! My pet Cocker Spaniel Oscar is a ULC “minister”, complete with certificate of ordination! Some people have even got their potted plants ordained! One man had an old tennis shoe ordained. Think about it, would you want to be part of a church that ordains not only anyone…but anything???

The Universal Life Church is a diploma mill as well as an ordination mill. Hensley himself received a Doctor of Divinity degree from another diploma mill, as well as a bogus degree in metallurgy, which he mistakenly bought thinking it was a degree in metaphysics! The ULC offers Doctor of Divinity degrees without any tests, previous education, or studying, for a “donation” of about $29.95. There’s also a PhD in religion offered for around $100. If you see an occultist with “D.D.” after their name, chances are they got it from the ULC or a similar mill. The ULC also sales a variety of titles from Imam, Arch-Cardinal, Rabbi, Deacon, Bishop and even (no kidding) Jedi Knight.

Hensley himself claimed he didn’t believe in a god, but claimed the sky was “our father” and the earth was “our mother”. He believed in reincarnation, claiming to be a reincarnated vaudeville comedian. Borrowing from Christian Science (to which he belonged to briefly), he claimed Jesus and Christ were to separate beings, and that Jesus of Nazareth was really the anti-Christ. Some people he ordained included New Age minister Rev. Terry Cole Whittaker, atheist Madeleine O’Hair, Fr. Alberto Rivera the fake ex-Jesuit of Jack Chick comic book fame, and the mass murderer “Reverend” Jim Jones (who was also an atheist). Hensley’s fake church is worthless spiritually. It only served to make him money. Yet many occultists seek ordination from his church. Aren’t you better than, a dog, a potted plant, or a mass murderer??? Then why be in the same league they are???

Jan 13

Lafayette Ronald Hubbard

Ashley Ann Lewis

Ashley Ann Lewis

Director / Dept Chair Occult at National Paranormal Society
Ashley became interested in the paranormal at a young age, but at that young age she did not have much understanding in it at all. I wasn’t until 2010 that she really became interested. Thanks to a Resolve carpet cleaning can that flew across the room, Ashley among three others who witness what happen that night, they pulled a team together. Ashley is a heavy researcher and though she may find the answer to what she is searching for she’ll search even harder. She’s overly determined and takes her part in the paranormal field very seriously. Between working hard and spending every dime she had she became a found of a paranormal team that is based out of Historic Louisiana and was honored to take on a position as a Representative with The National Paranormal Society. There is still so much she does not understand which drives her to work even harder and to further educate herself on everything.
Ashley Ann Lewis

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Hubbard, L(afayette) Ron(ald) (1911-1986)
Founder of the Church of Scientology. Hubbard was born in Tilden, Nebraska, on March 13, 1911. He spent much of his childhood in Montana on his grandfather’s ranch. His father was a naval officer, and as Hubbard matured, he traveled through the Pacific and to Asia. In 1930 he enrolled in the Engineering School of George Washington University, Washington, D.C., where he studied for the next two years. During the remainder of the decade he roamed the world as a participant in various explorations and wrote over 150 articles and short stories. His first book, Buckskin Brigades, appeared in 1937. In 1940 he was elected a member of the Explorers Club in New York. During World War II he served in the U.S. Navy with the rank of lieutenant. He also worked briefly in naval intelligence.

After the war, he returned to writing as a career. As a writer, Hubbard had a prodigious output and was remembered for the amazing speed at which he could produce copy. Often several stories would be published in the same issue of a magazine and thus many appeared under pseudonyms. No one systematically recorded his output, and reassembling a bibliography was a tedious process, carried out through the 1980s. In the 1930s he turned out Westerns for pulp magazines under the pseudonym “Winchester Remington Colt.” His early science-fiction pulp stories were under the pseudonyms “Kurt von Rachen” and “René Lafayette.” He wrote for Columbia Pictures in Hollywood in 1935.

Through the 1940s, partly based upon his experiences in the war, Hubbard began to develop a new philosophy of human nature and a new approach to dealing with basic human ills. The first public notice of his thinking appeared in an article in Astounding Science Fiction (May 1950), later to prove an unfortunate debut. As Dianetics, the name he gave his new approach, developed into the Church of Scientology and proved both controversial and successful, it would be demeaned as a “science fiction” religion and Hubbard dismissed as just a hack science fiction writer.

Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health appeared a few weeks after the Astounding Science Fiction article. The book created a sensation and launched a vast new industry of do-it-yourself psychotherapy. Hubbard created the Hubbard Dianetics Research Foundation and local Dianetics centers began to emerge based upon Hubbard’s technique for ridding individuals of the causes of aberrant behavior patterns and leading them to a state of “clear.”

As Hubbard continued to expand his thought and work out the implications of his theories, Dianetics grew into a comprehensive philosophical-religious system, Scientology. In 1954 the first Church of Scientology was opened in Los Angeles. The rest of Hubbard’s life would be spent in developing and perfecting Scientology. In 1966 he resigned from any official position in the church, but he continued his research and writing for a number of years. He developed guidelines for the church and left behind writing that focused on the implications of his thought for education and business.

During the last years of his life he dropped out of public sight and remained in contact with only a few church leaders. In the years prior to his death on January 24, 1986, he returned to his love for storytelling and wrote one major novel, Battlefield Earth, and a ten-volume science fiction series, Mission Earth.

As his church became a prosperous international movement, it and Hubbard became the center of controversies involving people who left the movement to found competing organizations, former members who turned upon the church for real or imagined grievances, and the anti-cult movement, which branded the church a cult. In retrospect, early controversy with the American Medical Association, which disapproved of Dianetics, seems to have spilled over into federal government departments and covert actions against the church were instigated. Rumors of illicit actions by the church, many of which led to problems with different governments, began to emerge around the world. Legal actions, most of which were eventually resolved, became the justification for action against the church in additional countries. Some high church officials authorized the infiltration of several government agencies, and this became a major source of embarrassment for the church when the people responsible were arrested and convicted for theft of government documents.

For the Church of Scientology, the years since 1985 have been marked by intense polemics and court action between members of the church and the Cult Awareness Network, which emerged in the mid-1980s as the chief organizational expression of the anti-cult movement. These legal battles continue. However, a several-decades-old controversy with the Internal Revenue Service came to an end.

Hubbard and the OTO

During the 1940s, Hubbard became involved in one of the more bizarre happenings in the world of the occult. In the 1930s, a lodge of the Ordo Templi Orientis, the magical group headed by magician Aleister Crowley, had opened in Pasadena, California. Among its members was John W. “Jack” Parsons, a research scientist at the California Institute of Technology. At some point in 1945, Parsons decided to try a magical experiment to produce a magical child. At this point Hubbard showed up at Parson’s house and was eventually invited by Parsons to become the necessary third person in the magical experiment.

The experiment consisted of Parsons and his female partner engaging in sexual intercourse while a third person, a clairvoyant, would tell them what was occurring in the invisible astral realm. The ritual would climax at what the clairvoyant seer suggested was the proper moment. Hopefully the act would result in the pregnancy of the woman and the induction of a spirit in the resulting child.

While Parsons and Hubbard seemed to have developed a strong friendship, early in 1946 they parted ways and Hubbard moved to Miami. Parsons claimed that Hubbard had skipped town with OTO funds and went to Miami to confront him. The present Church of Scientology claims that Hubbard had no attachment to either Parsons or the OTO, and that in spite of Hubbard’s work with Parsons, Hubbard was never initiated into the organization. Rather, they suggest that he was acting as an undercover agent to investigate Parsons and other people associated with Cal Tech who were living in Parsons’s house and working on sensitive government projects. Several of these physicists were later dismissed from government service as security risks. Hubbard did work for a period after the war as an undercover agent for the Los Angeles Police Department.

Hubbard died January 24, 1986

Jan 13

Rudolf Walter Richard Hess

Ashley Ann Lewis

Ashley Ann Lewis

Director / Dept Chair Occult at National Paranormal Society
Ashley became interested in the paranormal at a young age, but at that young age she did not have much understanding in it at all. I wasn’t until 2010 that she really became interested. Thanks to a Resolve carpet cleaning can that flew across the room, Ashley among three others who witness what happen that night, they pulled a team together. Ashley is a heavy researcher and though she may find the answer to what she is searching for she’ll search even harder. She’s overly determined and takes her part in the paranormal field very seriously. Between working hard and spending every dime she had she became a found of a paranormal team that is based out of Historic Louisiana and was honored to take on a position as a Representative with The National Paranormal Society. There is still so much she does not understand which drives her to work even harder and to further educate herself on everything.
Ashley Ann Lewis

Latest posts by Ashley Ann Lewis (see all)


hessRudolf Walter Richard Heß, also spelled Hess (26 April 1894 – 17 August 1987), was a prominent politician in Nazi Germany. Appointed Deputy Führer to Adolf Hitler in 1933, he served in this position until 1941, when he flew solo to Scotland in an attempt to negotiate peace with the United Kingdom during World War II. He was taken prisoner and eventually was convicted of crimes against peace, serving a life sentence.

Hess enlisted in the 7th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment as an infantryman at the outbreak of World War I. He was wounded several times over the course of the war, and won the Iron Cross, second class, in 1915. Shortly before the war ended, Hess enrolled to train as an aviator, but he saw no action in this role. He left the armed forces in December 1918 with the rank of Leutnant der Reserve.

In autumn 1919 Hess enrolled in the University of Munich, where he studied geopolitics under Karl Haushofer, a proponent of the concept of Lebensraum (“living space”), which later became one of the pillars of Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party; NSDAP) ideology. Hess joined the NSDAP on 1 July 1920, and was at Hitler’s side on 8 November 1923 for the Beer Hall Putsch, a failed Nazi attempt to seize control of the government of Bavaria. Whilst serving time in jail for this attempted coup, Hess helped Hitler write his opus, Mein Kampf, which became a foundation of the political platform of the NSDAP.

After the Nazi Seizure of Power in 1933, Hess was appointed Deputy Führer of the NSDAP and received a post in Hitler’s cabinet. He was the third most-powerful man in Germany, behind only Hitler and Hermann Göring. In addition to appearing on Hitler’s behalf at speaking engagements and rallies, Hess signed into law much of the legislation, including the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, that stripped the Jews of Germany of their rights in the lead-up to the Holocaust.

Hess continued to be interested in aviation, learning to fly the more advanced aircraft that were coming into development at the start of World War II. On 10 May 1941 he undertook a solo flight to Scotland, where he hoped to arrange peace talks with the Duke of Hamilton, whom he believed was prominent in opposition to the British government. Hess was immediately arrested on his arrival and was held in British custody until the end of the war, when he was returned to Germany to stand trial in the Nuremberg Trials of major war criminals in 1946. Throughout much of the trial, he claimed to be suffering from amnesia, but later admitted this was a ruse. Hess was convicted of crimes against peace and conspiracy with other German leaders to commit crimes and was transferred to Spandau Prison in 1947, where he served a life sentence. Repeated attempts by family members and prominent politicians to win him early release were blocked by the Soviet Union. Still in custody in Spandau, he died of an apparent suicide in 1987 at the age of 93. After his death the prison was demolished to prevent it from becoming a neo-nazi shrine.

Early Life
Hess, the eldest of three children, was born 26 April 1894 in Alexandria, Egypt, into the ethnic German family of Fritz Hess, a prosperous merchant from Bavaria, and Clara Hess (née Münch). His brother, Alfred, was born in 1897 and his sister, Margarete, was born in 1908. The family lived in a villa on the Egyptian coast near Alexandria, and visited Germany often from 1900, staying at their summer home in Reicholdsgrün (now part of Kirchenlamitz) in the Fichtel Mountains. Hess attended a German language Protestant school in Alexandria from 1900 to 1908, when he was sent back to Germany to study at a boarding school in Bad Godesberg. He demonstrated an aptitude for science and mathematics, but his father wished him to join the family business, Hess & Co., so he sent him in 1911 to study at the École supérieure de commerce in Neuchâtel, Switzerland. After a year there, Hess took an apprenticeship at a trading company in Hamburg.

World War I
Within weeks of the outbreak of World War I Hess enlisted in the 7th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment, becoming an infantryman. His initial posting was against the British on the Somme; he was present at the First Battle of Ypres. On 9 November 1914 Hess was transferred to the 1st Infantry Regiment, stationed near Arras. He was awarded the Iron Cross, second class, and promoted to Gefreiter (corporal) in April 1915. After additional training at the Munster Training Area, he was promoted to Vizefeldwebel (senior non-commissioned officer) and received the Bavarian Military Merit Cross. Returning to the front lines in November, he fought in Artois, participating in the battle for the town of Neuville-Saint-Vaast. After two months out of action with a throat infection, Hess served in the Battle of Verdun in May, and was hit by shrapnel in the left hand and arm on 12 June 1916 in fighting near the village of Thiaumont. After a month off to recover, he was sent back to the Verdun area, where he remained until December.

Hess was promoted to platoon leader of the 10th Company of the 18th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment, which was serving in Romania. He was wounded on 23 July and again on 8 August 1917; the first injury was a shell splinter to the left arm, which was dressed in the field, but the second was a bullet wound that entered the upper chest near the armpit and exited near his spinal column, leaving a pea-sized entry wound and a cherry stone-sized exit wound on his back. By 20 August he was well enough to travel, so he was sent to hospital in Hungary and eventually back to Germany, where he recovered in hospital in Meissen. In October he received promotion to Leutnant der Reserve and was recommended for, but did not receive, the Iron Cross, first class. At his father’s request, Hess was transferred to a hospital closer to home, arriving at Alexandersbad on 25 October.

While still convalescing, Hess had requested that he be allowed to enrol to train as a pilot, so after some Christmas leave with his family he reported to Munich, where he passed the required tests and underwent aeronautical training. By 14 October he had been assigned to Jagdstaffel 35b, a Bavarian fighter squadron equipped with Fokker D.VII biplanes. He saw no action with Jagdstaffel 35b, as the war ended on 11 November 1918, before he had the opportunity.

Hess was discharged from the armed forces in December 1918. The family fortunes had taken a serious downturn, as their business interests in Egypt had been expropriated by the British. Hess joined the Thule Society, an antisemitic right-wing Völkisch group, and a Freikorps, one of many such volunteer paramilitary organisations active in Germany at the time. Bavaria witnessed frequent and often bloody conflicts between right-wing groups such as the Freikorps and left-wing forces as they fought for control of the state during this period. Hess was a participant in street battles in the spring of 1919 and led a group which distributed thousands of antisemitic pamphlets in Munich.

In autumn 1919 Hess enrolled in the University of Munich, where he studied history and economics. His geopolitics professor was Karl Haushofer, a proponent of the concept of Lebensraum (“living space”), which Haushofer cited to justify the proposal that Germany should forcefully conquer additional territory in Eastern Europe. Hess later introduced this concept to Adolf Hitler, and it became one of the pillars of Nazi Party ideology. Hess became friends with Haushofer and his son Albrecht, a social theorist and lecturer.

Ilse Pröhl, a fellow student at the university, met Hess in April 1920 when they by chance rented rooms in the same boarding house. They married on 20 December 1927 and their son Wolf Rüdiger Hess was born ten years later, in 1937.

Relationship with Hitler
After hearing NSDAP leader Hitler, a powerful orator, speak for the first time in 1920 at a Munich rally, Hess became completely devoted to him. They held a shared belief in the stab-in-the-back myth, the notion that Germany’s loss in World War I was caused by a conspiracy of Jews and Bolsheviks rather than a military defeat. Hess joined the NSDAP on 1 July as member number 16. As the party continued to grow, holding rallies and meetings in ever larger beer halls in Munich, he focused his attention on fundraising and organisational activities. On 4 November 1921 he was injured while protecting Hitler when a bomb planted by a Marxist group exploded at the Hofbräuhaus during a party event. Hess joined the Sturmabteilung (SA) by 1922 and helped organise and recruit its early membership.

Meanwhile, problems continued with the economy; hyperinflation caused personal fortunes to be rendered worthless. When the German government failed to meet their reparations payments and French troops marched in to occupy the industrial areas along the Ruhr in January 1923, widespread civil unrest was the result. Hitler decided the time was ripe to attempt to seize control of the government with a coup d’état modelled on Benito Mussolini’s 1922 March on Rome. Hess was with Hitler on the night of 8 November 1923 when he and the SA stormed a public meeting organised by Bavaria’s de facto ruler, Staatskommissar (state commissioner) Gustav von Kahr, in the Bürgerbräukeller, a large beer hall in Munich. Brandishing a pistol, Hitler interrupted Kahr’s speech and announced that the national revolution had begun, declaring the formation of a new government with World War I General Erich Ludendorff. The next day, Hitler and several thousand supporters attempted to march to the Ministry of War in the city centre. Gunfire broke out between the Nazis and the police; fourteen marchers and four police officers were killed. Hitler was arrested on 11 November.

Meanwhile, Hess and some SA men had taken a few of the dignitaries hostage on the night of the 8th, driving them to a house about 50 kilometres (31 mi) from Munich. When Hess left briefly to make a phone call the next day, the hostages convinced the driver to help them escape. Hess, stranded, called Ilse Pröhl, who brought him a bicycle so he could return to Munich. He went to stay with the Haushofers and then fled to Austria, but they convinced him to return. He was arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison for his role in the attempted coup, which later became known as the Beer Hall Putsch. Hitler was sentenced to five years imprisonment, and the NSDAP and SA were both outlawed.

Both men were incarcerated in Landsberg Prison, where Hitler soon began work on his memoir, Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”), which he dictated to fellow prisoners Hess and Emil Maurice. Edited by publisher Max Amann, Hess and others, the work was published in two parts in 1925 and 1926. It was later released in a single volume, which became a best-seller after 1930. This book, with its message of violent antisemitism, became the foundation of the political platform of the NSDAP.

Hitler was released on parole on 20 December 1924 and Hess ten days later. The ban on the NSDAP and SA was lifted in February 1925, and the party grew to 100,000 members in 1928 and 150,000 in 1929. They received only 2.6 per cent of the vote in the 1928 election, but support increased steadily up until the seizure of power in 1933.

Hitler named Hess his private secretary in April 1925 at a salary of 500 Reichsmarks per month, and named him as personal adjutant on 20 July 1929. Hess accompanied Hitler to speaking engagements around the country and became his friend and confidante. In December 1932 Hess was named party Political Central Commissioner.

Retaining his interest in flying after the end of his active military career, Hess obtained his private pilot’s licence on 4 April 1929. His instructor was World War I flying ace Theodor Croneiss. In 1930 Hess became the owner of a BFW M.23b monoplane sponsored by the party newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter. He acquired two more Messerschmitt aircraft in the early 1930s, logging many flying hours and becoming proficient in the operation of light single-engine aircraft.

Deputy Führer
On 30 January 1933 Hitler was appointed Reich Chancellor, his first step in gaining dictatorial control of Germany. Hess was named Deputy Führer of the NSDAP on 21 April and was appointed to the cabinet, with the post of Reich Minister without Portfolio, on 1 December.With offices in the Brown House in Munich and another in Berlin, Hess was responsible for several departments, including foreign affairs, finance, health, education and law. All legislation passed through his office for approval, except that concerning the army, the police and foreign policy, and he wrote and co-signed many of Hitler’s decrees. An organiser of the annual Nuremberg Rallies, he usually gave the opening speech and introduced Hitler. Hess also spoke over the radio and at rallies around the country, so frequently that the speeches were collected into book form in 1938. Hess acted as Hitler’s delegate in negotiations with industrialists and members of the wealthier classes.As Hess had been born abroad, Hitler had him oversee the NSDAP groups such as the NSDAP/AO that were in charge of party members living in other countries. Hitler instructed Hess to review all court decisions that related to persons deemed enemies of the Party. He was authorised to increase the sentences of anyone he felt got off too lightly in these cases, and was also empowered to take “merciless action” if he saw fit to do so. This often entailed sending the person to a concentration camp or simply ordering the person killed. Hess was given the rank of Obergruppenführer in the Schutzstaffel (SS) in 1934, the second-highest SS rank.

The Nazi regime began to persecute Jews soon after the seizure of power. Hess’s office was partly responsible for drafting Hitler’s Nuremberg Laws of 1935, laws that had far-reaching implications for the Jews of Germany, banning marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans and depriving non-Aryans of their German citizenship. Hess’s friend Karl Haushofer and his family were subject to these laws, as Haushofer had married a half-Jewish woman, so Hess issued documents exempting them from this legislation.

Hess did not build a power base or develop a coterie of followers. He was motivated by his loyalty to Hitler and a desire to be useful to him; he did not seek power or prestige or take advantage of his position to accumulate personal wealth. He lived in a modest house in Munich. Although Hess had less influence than other top NSDAP officials, he was popular with the masses. After the Invasion of Poland and the start of World War II in September 1939, Hitler made Hess second in line to succeed him, after Hermann Göring. Around the same time, Hitler appointed Hess’s chief of staff, Martin Bormann, as his personal secretary, a post formerly held by Hess.

Hess was obsessed with his health to the point of hypochondria, consulting many doctors and other practitioners for what he described to his captors in Britain as a long list of ailments involving the kidneys, colon, gall bladder, bowels and heart. Like Hitler, Hess was a vegetarian, and he did not smoke or drink. He brought his own food to the Berghof, claiming it was biologically dynamic, but Hitler did not approve of this practice, so he discontinued taking meals with the Führer.

Hess was interested in music, enjoyed reading and loved to spend time hiking and climbing in the mountains with Ilse. He and his friend Albrecht Haushofer shared an interest in astrology, and Hess also was keen on clairvoyance and the occult. Hess continued to be interested in aviation. He won an air race in 1934, flying a BFW M.35 in a circuit around Zugspitze Mountain and returning to the airfield at Munich with a time of 29 minutes. He placed sixth of 29 participants in a similar race held the following year. With the outbreak of World War II, Hess asked Hitler to be allowed to join the Luftwaffe as a pilot, but Hitler forbade it, and ordered him to stop flying for the duration of the war. Hess convinced him to reduce the ban to one year.

Attemped Peace Mission
As the war progressed, Hitler’s attention became focused on foreign affairs and the conduct of the war, to the exclusion of all else. Hess, not directly engaged in either of these endeavours, though he felt qualified to do so, became increasingly sidelined from the affairs of the nation and from Hitler’s attention; Bormann had successfully supplanted Hess in many of his duties and usurped his position at Hitler’s side. Also concerned that Germany would face a war on two fronts as plans progressed for Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union scheduled to take place in spring 1941, Hess decided to boldly attempt to bring Britain to the negotiating table by travelling there himself to seek meetings with the British government. He asked the advice of Albrecht Haushofer, who suggested several potential contacts in Britain. Hess settled on fellow aviator Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, the Duke of Hamilton, whom he had never met. On Hess’s instructions, Haushofer wrote to Hamilton in September 1940, but the letter was intercepted by MI5 and Hamilton did not see it until March 1941. Hamilton was chosen in the mistaken belief that he was one of the leaders of an opposition party opposed to war with Germany, and because he was a friend of Albrecht.

A letter Hess wrote to his wife dated 4 November 1940 shows that in spite of not receiving a reply from Hamilton, he intended to proceed with his plan. He began training on the Messerschmitt Bf 110, a two-seater twin-engine aircraft, in October 1940 under instructor Wilhelm Stör, the chief test pilot at Messerschmitt. He continued to practice, including logging many cross-country flights, and found a specific aircraft that handled well—a Bf 110E-1/N—which was from then on held in reserve for his personal use. He asked for a radio compass, modifications to the oxygen delivery system, and large long-range fuel tanks to be installed on this plane, and these requests were granted by March 1941.

After a final check of the weather reports for Germany and the North Sea, Hess took off at 17:45 on 10 May 1941 from the airfield at Augsburg-Haunstetten in his specially prepared aircraft. It was the last of several attempts to depart on his mission; previous efforts had to be called off due to mechanical problems or poor weather. Wearing a leather flying suit bearing the rank of captain, he brought along a supply of money and toiletries, a torch, a camera, maps and charts, and a collection of 28 different medicines, as well as dextrose tablets to help ward off fatigue and an assortment of homeopathic remedies.

Flight to Scotland
Initially setting a course towards Bonn, Hess used landmarks on the ground to orient himself and make minor course corrections. When he reached the coast near the Frisian Islands, he turned and flew in an easterly direction for some twenty minutes to stay out of range of British radar. He then took a heading of 335 degrees for the trip across the North Sea, initially at low altitude, but travelling for most of the journey at 5,000 feet (1,500 m). At 20:58 he changed his heading to 245 degrees, intending to approach the coast of North East England near the town of Bamburgh, Northumberland. As it was not yet sunset when he initially approached the coast, Hess backtracked, zigzagging back and forth for some 40 minutes until it grew dark. Around this time his auxiliary fuel tanks were exhausted, so he released them into the sea. Also around this time, at 22:08, the British Chain Home station at Ottercops Moss near Newcastle upon Tyne detected his presence and passed along this information to the Filter Room at Bentley Priory. Soon he had been detected by several other stations, and the aircraft was designated as “Raid 42”.

Two Spitfires of No. 72 Squadron RAF, No. 13 Group RAF that were already in the air were sent to attempt an intercept, but failed to find the intruder. A third Spitfire sent from Acklington at 22:20 also failed to spot the aircraft; by then it was dark and Hess had dropped to an extremely low altitude, so low that the volunteer on duty at the Royal Observer Corps (ROC) station at Chatton was able to correctly identify it as an Me 110, and reported its altitude as 50 feet (15 m). Tracked by additional ROC posts, Hess continued his flight into Scotland at high speed and low altitude, but was unable to spot his destination, Dungavel House, so he headed for the west coast to orient himself and then turned back inland. At 22:35 a Boulton Paul Defiant sent from No. 141 Squadron RAF based at Ayr began pursuit. Hess was nearly out of fuel, so he climbed to 6,000 feet (1,800 m) and parachuted out of the plane at 23:06. He injured his foot, either while exiting the aircraft or when he hit the ground. The aircraft crashed at 23:09, about 12 miles (19 km) west of Dungavel House. He would have been even closer to his destination had he not had trouble exiting the aircraft. Hess considered this achievement to be the proudest moment of his life.

Before his departure from Germany, Hess had given his adjutant, Karlheinz Pintsch, a letter addressed to Hitler that detailed his intentions to open peace negotiations with the British. Pintsch delivered the letter to Hitler at the Berghof around noon on 11 May. Albert Speer later said Hitler described Hess’s departure as one of the worst personal blows of his life, as he considered it a personal betrayal. Hitler was worried that his other allies, such as the Italians and the Japanese, would perceive Hess’s act as an attempt by Hitler to secretly open peace negotiations with the British. For this reason, Hitler ordered that the German press should characterise Hess as a madman who made the decision to fly to Scotland entirely on his own, without Hitler’s knowledge or authority. Some members of the government, including Göring and Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, believed this only made matters worse, because if Hess truly were mentally ill, he should not have been holding an important government position. Hitler stripped Hess of all of his party and state offices, and secretly ordered him shot on sight if he ever returned to Germany. He abolished the post of Deputy Führer, assigning Hess’s former duties to Bormann, with the title of Head of the Party Chancellery. Hitler initiated Aktion Hess, a flurry of hundreds of arrests of astrologers, faith healers and occultists that took place around 9 June. The campaign was part of a propaganda effort by Goebbels and others to denigrate Hess and to make scapegoats of occult practitioners.

American journalist H. R. Knickerbocker, who had met both Hitler and Hess, speculated that Hitler had sent Hess to deliver a message informing Winston Churchill of the forthcoming invasion of the Soviet Union, and offering a negotiated peace or even an anti-Bolshevik partnership. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin believed that Hess’s flight had been engineered by the British. Stalin persisted in this belief as late as 1944, when he mentioned the matter to Churchill, who insisted that they had no advance knowledge of the flight.

Hess landed at Floors Farm, Eaglesham, where he was discovered still struggling with his parachute by local ploughman David McLean. Identifying himself as “Hauptmann Alfred Horn”, Hess said he had an important message for the Duke of Hamilton. McLean helped Hess to his nearby cottage and contacted the local Home Guard unit, who escorted the captive to their headquarters in Busby, East Renfrewshire. He was next taken to the police station at Giffnock, arriving sometime after midnight; he was searched and his possessions confiscated. Hess repeatedly requested to meet with the Duke of Hamilton during questioning undertaken with the aid of an interpreter by Major Graham Donald, the area commandant of Royal Observer Corps. After the interview Hess was taken under guard to Maryhill Barracks in Glasgow, where his injuries were treated. By this time some of his captors suspected Hess’s true identity, though he continued to insist his name was Horn.

Hamilton had been on duty as Wing Commander at RAF Turnhouse near Edinburgh when Hess had arrived, and his station had been one of those that had tracked the progress of the flight. He arrived at Maryhill Barracks the next morning, and after examining Hess’s effects, he met alone with the prisoner. Hess immediately admitted his true identity and outlined the reason for his flight. Hamilton told Hess that he hoped to continue the conversation with the aid of an interpreter; Hess could speak English well, but was having trouble understanding Hamilton. After the meeting, Hamilton examined the remains of the Messerschmitt in the company of an intelligence officer, then returned to Turnhouse, where he made arrangements through the Foreign Office to meet with Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who was at Ditchley for the weekend. They had some preliminary talks that night, and Hamilton accompanied Churchill back to London the next day, where they both met with members of the War Cabinet. Churchill sent Hamilton with foreign affairs expert Ivone Kirkpatrick, who had met Hess previously, to positively identify the prisoner, who had been moved to Buchanan Castle overnight. Hess, who had prepared extensive notes to use during this meeting, spoke to them at length about Hitler’s expansionary plans and the need for Britain, in exchange for being allowed to keep their overseas possessions, to let the Nazis have free rein in Europe. Kirkpatrick held two more meetings with Hess over the course of the next few days, while Hamilton returned to his duties. Hess, in addition to being disappointed at the apparent failure of his mission, began claiming that his medical treatment was inadequate and that there was a plot afoot to poison him.

Hess’s flight, but not his destination or fate, was first announced by Munich Radio in Germany on the evening of 12 May. On 13 May Hitler sent Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop to give the news in person to Mussolini, and the British press was permitted to release full information about events that same day. On 14 May Ilse Hess finally learned that her husband had survived the trip when news of his fate was broadcast on German radio.

The wreckage of the aircraft was salvaged by 63 Maintenance Unit between 11 and 16 May 1941 and was taken to Oxford to be stored. The aeroplane was armed with four machine guns in the nose but carried no ammunition. Several pieces of the plane are still extant, including the two engines, one of which is at the Royal Air Force Museum London. The other engine and a piece of the fuselage is at the Imperial War Museum in London.

Trial and imprisonment
Prisoner of war
From Buchanan Castle, Hess was transferred briefly to the Tower of London and then to Mytchett Place in Surrey, a fortified mansion, designated “Camp Z”, where he stayed for the next thirteen months. Churchill issued orders that Hess was to be treated well, though he was not allowed to read newspapers or listen to the radio. Three intelligence officers were stationed onsite and 150 soldiers were placed on guard. By early June Hess was allowed to write to his family. He also prepared a letter to the Duke of Hamilton, but it was never delivered, and his repeated requests for further meetings were turned down. Dr Henry V. Dicks and Dr John Rawlings Rees, psychiatrists who treated Hess during this period, note that while he was not insane, he was mentally unstable, with tendencies toward hypochondria and paranoia. Hess repeated his peace proposal to John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon, then serving as Lord Chancellor, in an interview on 9 June. Lord Simon noted that the prisoner’s mental state was not good; Hess claimed he was being poisoned and was being prevented from sleeping. He would insist on swapping his dinner with that of one of his guards, and attempted to get them to send samples of the food out for analysis.

In the early morning hours of 16 June Hess rushed his guards and attempted suicide by jumping over the railing of the staircase at Mytchett Place. He fell onto the stone floor below, fracturing the femur of his left leg. The injury required that the leg be kept in traction for twelve weeks, with a further six weeks bed rest before he was permitted to walk with crutches. Captain Munro Johnson of the Royal Army Medical Corps, who assessed Hess, noted that another suicide attempt was likely to occur in the near future. Hess began around this time to complain of amnesia. This symptom and some of his increasingly erratic behaviour may have in part been a ruse, because if he were declared mentally ill, he could be repatriated under the terms of the Geneva Conventions.

Hess was moved to Maindiff Court Hospital on 26 June 1942, where he would remain for the next three years. The facility was chosen for its added security and the need for fewer guards. Hess was allowed walks on the grounds and car trips into the surrounding countryside. He had access to newspapers and other reading materials; he wrote letters and journals. His mental health remained under the care of Dr Rees. Hess continued to complain on and off of memory loss and made a second suicide attempt on 4 February 1945, when he stabbed himself with a bread knife. The wound was not serious, requiring two stitches. Despondent that Germany was losing the war, he took no food for the next week, only resuming eating when he was threatened with being force-fed.

Germany unconditionally surrendered on 8 May 1945. Hess, facing charges as a war criminal, was ordered to appear before the International Military Tribunal and was transported to Nuremberg on 10 October 1945.
The Allies of World War II held a series of military tribunals and trials, beginning with a trial of the major war criminals from November 1945 to October 1946. Hess was tried with this first group of twenty-three defendants, all of whom were charged with four counts—conspiracy to commit crimes, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity, in violation of international laws governing warfare.

On his arrival in Nuremberg, Hess was reluctant to give up some of his possessions, including samples of food he claimed had been poisoned by the British; he proposed to use these for his defence during the trial. The commandant of the facility, Colonel Burton C. Andrus of the United States Army, advised him that he would be allowed no special treatment; the samples were sealed and confiscated. Hess’s diaries indicate that he did not acknowledge the validity of the court and felt the outcome was a foregone conclusion. He was thin when he arrived, weighing 65 kilograms (143 lb), and had a poor appetite, but was deemed to be in good health. As one defendant, Robert Ley, had managed to hang himself in his cell on 24 October, the remaining prisoners were monitored around the clock. Because of his previous suicide attempts, Hess was handcuffed to a guard whenever he was out of his cell.

Almost immediately after his arrival, Hess began exhibiting amnesia, which may have been feigned in the hope of avoiding the death sentence. Medical personnel who examined Hess reported he was not insane and was fit to stand trial. At least two examiners, the British doctor and the Russian one, noted their belief that Hess’s amnesia might be fake. Efforts were made to trigger his memory, including bringing in his former secretaries and showing old newsreels, but he persisted in showing no response to these stimuli. When Hess was allowed to make a statement to the tribunal on 30 November, he admitted that he had faked memory loss as a tactic. He spoke to the tribunal again on 31 August 1946, the last day of closing statements.

The prosecution’s case against Hess was presented by Mervyn Griffith-Jones beginning on 7 February 1946. By quoting from Hess’s speeches, he attempted to demonstrate that Hess had been aware of and agreed with Hitler’s plans to conduct a war of aggression in violation of international law. He declared that as Hess had signed important governmental decrees, including the decree requiring mandatory military service, the Nuremberg racial laws, and a decree incorporating the conquered Polish territories into the Reich, he must share responsibility for the acts of the regime. He pointed out that the timing of Hess’s trip to Scotland, only six weeks before the German invasion of the Soviet Union, could only be viewed as an attempt by Hess to keep the British out of the war. Hess resumed showing symptoms of amnesia at the end of February, partway through the prosecution’s case.
The case for Hess’s defence was presented from 22–26 March by his lawyer, Dr Alfred Seidl. He noted that while Hess accepted responsibility for the many decrees he had signed, he said these matters were part of the internal workings of a sovereign state and thus outside the purview of a war crimes trial. He called to the stand Ernst Wilhelm Bohle, the man who had been head of the NSDAP/AO, to testify on Hess’s behalf. When presented by Griffith-Jones with questions about the organisation’s spying in several countries, Bohle testified that any warlike activities such as espionage had been done without his permission or knowledge. Seidl called two other witnesses, former mayor of Stuttgart Karl Strölin and Hess’s brother Alfred, both of whom refuted the allegations that the NSDAP/AO had been spying and fomenting war. Seidl presented a summation of the defence’s case on 25 July, in which he attempted to refute the charge of conspiracy by pointing out that Hitler alone had made all the important decisions. He noted that Hess could not be held responsible for any events that took place after he left Germany in May 1941. Meanwhile Hess mentally detached himself from what was happening, declining visits from his family and refusing to read the newspapers.

The court deliberated for nearly two months before passing judgement on 30 September, with the defendants being individually sentenced on 1 October. Hess was found guilty on two counts: crimes against peace (planning and preparing a war of aggression), and conspiracy with other German leaders to commit crimes. He was found not guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity. He was given a life sentence, one of seven Nazis to receive prison sentences at the trial. These seven were transported by aircraft to the Allied military prison at Spandau in Berlin on 18 July 1947. The Soviet member of the tribunal, Major-General Iona Nikitchenko, filed a document recording his dissent of Hess’s sentence; he felt the death sentence was warranted.

Spandau Prison
Spandau was placed under the control of the Allied Control Council, the governing body in charge of the military occupation of Germany. It consisted of representatives from four member states: Britain, France, the United States and the Soviet Union. Each country supplied guards for the prison for a month at a time on a rotating basis. After the inmates were given medical examinations—Hess refused his body search, and had to be held down—they were provided with prison garb and assigned the numbers by which they would be addressed throughout their stay. Hess was Number 7. The prison had a small library, and inmates were allowed to file special requests for additional reading material. Writing materials were limited; each inmate would be allowed four pieces of paper per month for letters. The prisoners were not allowed to speak to one another without permission and were expected to work in the facility, helping with cleaning and gardening chores. The inmates were taken for outdoor walks around the prison grounds for an hour each day, separated about 10 yards (9 m) apart. Some of the rules became more relaxed as time went on.

Visits to Spandau of half an hour per month were allowed, but Hess forbade his family to visit until December 1969, when he was a patient at the British Military Hospital in West Berlin for a perforated ulcer. By this time Wolf Rüdiger Hess was 32 years old and Ilse 69; they had not seen Hess since his departure from Germany in 1941. After this illness, he allowed his family to visit regularly. His daughter-in-law Andrea, who often brought photos and films of his grandchildren, became a particularly welcome visitor. Hess’s health problems, both mental and physical, were ongoing during his captivity. He cried out in the night, claiming he had stomach pains. He continued to suspect that his food was being poisoned and complained of amnesia. A psychiatrist who examined him in 1957 deemed he was not ill enough to be transferred to a mental hospital. Another unsuccessful suicide attempt took place in 1977.

Other than his stays in hospital, Hess spent the rest of his life in Spandau Prison. His fellow inmates Konstantin von Neurath, Walther Funk and Erich Raeder were released because of poor health in the 1950s; Karl Dönitz, Baldur von Schirach and Albert Speer served their time and were released, Dönitz in 1956, Schirach and Speer in 1966. The 600-cell prison continued to be maintained for its lone prisoner from Speer and Schirach’s release until Hess’s death in 1987, at an estimated cost of DM 800,000. Conditions were far more pleasant in the 1980s than in the early years; Hess was allowed to move more freely around the cell block, setting his own routine and choosing his own activities, which included television, films, reading and gardening. A lift was installed so he could more readily access the garden, and he was provided with a medical orderly from 1982 onward.

Numerous appeals for Hess’s release were launched by his lawyer, Dr Seidl, beginning as early as 1947. These were denied, mainly because the Soviets repeatedly vetoed the proposal. Spandau was located in West Berlin, and its existence gave the Soviets a foothold in that sector of the city. Additionally, Soviet officials believed Hess must have known in 1941 that an attack on their country was imminent. In 1967 Wolf Rüdiger Hess began a campaign to win his father’s release, garnering support from notable politicians such as Geoffrey Lawrence, 1st Baron Oaksey[a] in Britain and Willy Brandt in Germany, but to no avail, in spite of the prisoner’s advanced age and deteriorating health.

Death and Aftermath
Hess died on 17 August 1987 at the age of 93 in a summer house that had been set up in the prison garden as a reading room. He took an extension cord from one of the lamps, strung it over a window latch, and hanged himself. Death occurred by asphyxiation. A short note to his family, thanking them for all they had done, was found in his pocket. The Four Powers released a statement on 17 September ruling the death a suicide. Initially buried at a secret location to avoid media attention or demonstrations by Nazi sympathisers, Hess was re-interred in a family plot at Wunsiedel on 17 March 1988, and his wife was buried beside him when she died in 1995. Spandau Prison was demolished to prevent it from becoming a Nazi shrine.

His lawyer, Dr Seidl, felt Hess was too old and frail to have managed to kill himself. Wolf Rüdiger Hess repeatedly claimed that his father had been murdered by the British Secret Intelligence Service to prevent him from revealing information about British misconduct during the war. Abdallah Melaouhi, who served as Hess’s medical orderly from 1982 to 1987, was dismissed from his position at his local district parliament’s Immigration and Integration Advisory Council after he wrote a self-published book on a similar theme. According to an investigation by the British government in 1989, the available evidence did not back up the claim that Hess was murdered, and Solicitor General Sir Nicholas Lyell saw no grounds for further investigation. Further, the autopsy results support the conclusion that Hess had killed himself. A report released in 2012 again raised the question of whether Hess was murdered. Historian Peter Padfield claims the suicide note found on the body appears to have been written when Hess was hospitalised in 1969.

After the town of Wunsiedel became the scene of pilgrimages and neo-Nazi demonstrations every August on the date of Hess’s death, the parish council decided not to allow an extension on the grave site’s lease when it expired in 2011.] With the consent of his family, Hess’s grave was re-opened on 20 July 2011 and his remains exhumed, then cremated. His ashes were scattered at sea by family members; the gravestone, which bore the epitaph “Ich hab’s gewagt” (“I have dared”), was destroyed.
From Hess’s son

Jan 12

Adolf Hitler

Ashley Ann Lewis

Ashley Ann Lewis

Director / Dept Chair Occult at National Paranormal Society
Ashley became interested in the paranormal at a young age, but at that young age she did not have much understanding in it at all. I wasn’t until 2010 that she really became interested. Thanks to a Resolve carpet cleaning can that flew across the room, Ashley among three others who witness what happen that night, they pulled a team together. Ashley is a heavy researcher and though she may find the answer to what she is searching for she’ll search even harder. She’s overly determined and takes her part in the paranormal field very seriously. Between working hard and spending every dime she had she became a found of a paranormal team that is based out of Historic Louisiana and was honored to take on a position as a Representative with The National Paranormal Society. There is still so much she does not understand which drives her to work even harder and to further educate herself on everything.
Ashley Ann Lewis

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hitletAdolf Hitler was the leader of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. He initiated World War II and oversaw fascist policies that resulted in millions of deaths.

Born in Austria in 1889, Adolf Hitler rose to power in German politics as leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, also known as the Nazi Party. Hitler was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and served as dictator from 1934 to 1945. His policies precipitated World War II and the Holocaust. Hitler committed suicide with wife Eva Braun on April 30, 1945, in his Berlin bunker.

Early Years

Dictator Adolf Hitler was born in Branau am Inn, Austria, on April 20, 1889, and was the fourth of six children born to Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl. When Hitler was 3 years old, the family moved from Austria to Germany. As a child, Hitler clashed frequently with his father. Following the death of his younger brother, Edmund, in 1900, he became detached and introverted. His father did not approve of his interest in fine art rather than business. In addition to art, Hitler showed an early interest in German nationalism, rejecting the authority of Austria-Hungary. This nationalism would become the motivating force of Hitler’s life.

Alois died suddenly in 1903. Two years later, Adolf’s mother allowed her son to drop out of school. He moved to Vienna and worked as a casual laborer and a watercolor painter. Hitler applied to the Academy of Fine Arts twice, and was rejected both times. Out of money, he moved into a homeless shelter, where he remained for several years. Hitler later pointed to these years as the time when he first cultivated his anti-Semitism, though there is some debate about this account.

At the outbreak of World War I, Hitler applied to serve in the German army. He was accepted in August 1914, though he was still an Austrian citizen. Although he spent much of his time away from the front lines, Hitler was present at a number of significant battles and was wounded at the Somme. He was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross First Class and the Black Wound Badge.

Hitler became embittered over the collapse of the war effort. The experience reinforced his passionate German patriotism, and he was shocked by Germany’s surrender in 1918. Like other German nationalists, he believed that the German army had been betrayed by civilian leaders and Marxists. He found the Treaty of Versailles degrading, particularly the demilitarization of the Rhineland and the stipulation that Germany accept responsibility for starting the war.

After World War I, Hitler returned to Munich and continued to work for the military as an intelligence officer. While monitoring the activities of the German Workers’ Party (DAP), Hitler adopted many of the anti-Semitic, nationalist and anti-Marxist ideas of DAP founder Anton Drexler. Drexler invited Hitler to join the DAP, which he did in 1919.

To increase its appeal, the DAP changed its name to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP). Hitler personally designed the party banner, featuring a swastika in a white circle on a red background. Hitler soon gained notoriety for his vitriolic speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians, Marxists and Jews. In 1921, Hitler replaced Drexler as NSDAP party chairman.

Hitler’s vitriolic beer-hall speeches began attracting regular audiences. Early followers included army captain Ernst Rohm, the head of the Nazi paramilitary organization, the Sturmabteilung (SA), which protected meetings and frequently attacked political opponents.

On November 8, 1923, Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting of 3,000 people at a large beer hall in Munich. Hitler announced that the national revolution had begun and declared the formation of a new government. After a short struggle including 20 deaths, the coup, known as the “Beer Hall Putsch,” failed.

Hitler was arrested three days later and tried for high treason. He served a year in prison, during which time he dictated most of the first volume of Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”) to his deputy, Rudolf Hess. The book laid out Hitler’s plans for transforming German society into one based on race.

Rise to Power

The Great Depression in Germany provided a political opportunity for Hitler. Germans were ambivalent to the parliamentary republic and increasingly open to extremist options. In 1932, Hitler ran against Paul von Hindenburg for the presidency. Hitler came in second in both rounds of the election, garnering more than 35 percent of the vote in the final election. The election established Hitler as a strong force in German politics. Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler as chancellor in order to promote political balance.

Hitler used his position as chancellor to form a de facto legal dictatorship. The Reichstag Fire Decree, announced after a suspicious fire at the Reichstag, suspended basic rights and allowed detention without trial. Hitler also engineered the passage of the Enabling Act, which gave his cabinet full legislative powers for a period of four years and allowed deviations from the constitution.

Having achieved full control over the legislative and executive branches of government, Hitler and his political allies embarked on a systematic suppression of the remaining political opposition. By the end of June, the other parties had been intimidated into disbanding. On July 14, 1933, Hitler’s Nazi Party was declared the only legal political party in Germany.

Military opposition was also punished. The demands of the SA for more political and military power led to the Night of the Long Knives, which took place from June 30 to July 2, 1934. Ernst Röhm and other SA leaders, along with a number of Hitler’s political enemies, were rounded up and shot.

The day before Hindenburg’s death in August 1934, the cabinet had enacted a law abolishing the office of president and combining its powers with those of the chancellor. Hitler thus became head of state as well as head of government, and was formally named as leader and chancellor. As head of state, Hitler became supreme commander of the armed forces. He began to mobilize for war. Germany withdrew from the League of Nations, and Hitler announced a massive expansion of Germany’s armed forces.

The Nazi regime also included social reform measures. Hitler promoted anti-smoking campaigns across the country. These campaigns stemmed from Hitler’s self-imposed dietary restrictions, which included abstinence from alcohol and meat. At dinners, Hitler sometimes told graphic stories about the slaughter of animals in an effort to shame his fellow diners. He encouraged all Germans to keep their bodies pure of any intoxicating or unclean substance.

A main Nazi concept was the notion of racial hygiene. New laws banned marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans, and deprived “non-Aryans” of the benefits of German citizenship. Hitler’s early eugenic policies targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities, and later authorized a euthanasia program for disabled adults.

The Holocaust was also conducted under the auspices of racial hygiene. Between 1939 and 1945, Nazis and their collaborators were responsible for the deaths of 11 million to 14 million people, including about 6 million Jews, representing two-thirds of the Jewish population in Europe. Deaths took place in concentration and extermination camps and through mass executions. Other persecuted groups included Poles, communists, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses and trade unionists, among others. Hitler probably never visited the concentration camps and did not speak publicly about the killings.

World War II

In 1938, Hitler, along with several other European leaders, signed the Munich Agreement. The treaty ceded the Sudetenland districts to Germany, reversing part of the Versailles Treaty. As a result of the summit, Hitler was named Time magazine’s Man of the Year for 1938. This diplomatic win only whetted his appetite for a renewed German dominance. On September 1, Germany invaded Poland. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany.

Hitler escalated his activities in 1940, invading Scandinavia as well as France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Belgium. Hitler ordered bombing raids on the United Kingdom, with the goal of invasion. Germany’s formal alliance with Japan and Italy, known collectively as the Axis powers, was signed to deter the United States from supporting and protecting the British.

On June 22, 1941, Hitler violated a non-aggression pact with Joseph Stalin, sending 3 million German troops into the Soviet Union. The invading force seized a huge area before the German advance was stopped outside Moscow in December 1941.

On December 7, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Hitler was now at war against a coalition that included the world’s largest empire (Britain), the world’s greatest financial power (the U.S.) and the world’s largest army (the Soviet Union).

Facing these odds, Hitler’s military judgment became increasingly erratic. Germany’s military and economic position deteriorated along with Hitler’s health. Germany and the Axis could not sustain Hitler’s aggressive and expansive war. In late 1942, German forces failed to seize the Suez Canal. The German army also suffered defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad and the Battle of Kursk. On June 6, 1944, the Western Allied armies landed in northern France. As a result of these significant setbacks, many German officers concluded that defeat was inevitable and that Hitler’s denial would result in the destruction of the country.

Death and Legacy

By early 1945, Hitler realized that Germany was going to lose the war. The Soviets had driven the German army back into Western Europe, and the Allies were advancing into Germany. On April 29, 1945, Hitler married his girlfriend, Eva Braun, in a small civil ceremony in his Berlin bunker. Around this time, Hitler was informed of the assassination of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Afraid of falling into the hands of enemy troops, Hitler and Braun committed suicide the day after their wedding, on April 30, 1945. Their bodies were carried to the bombed-out garden behind the Reich Chancellery, where they were burned. Berlin fell on May 2, 1945.

Hitler’s political program had brought about a world war, leaving behind a devastated and impoverished Eastern and Central Europe, including Germany. His policies inflicted human suffering on an unprecedented scale and resulted in the death of an estimated 40 million people, including about 27 million in the Soviet Union. Hitler’s defeat marked the end of a phase of European history dominated by Germany, and the defeat of fascism. A new ideological global conflict, the Cold War, emerged in the aftermath of World War II.…
Nazism and Occultism

Jan 12

Heinrich Himmler

Ashley Ann Lewis

Ashley Ann Lewis

Director / Dept Chair Occult at National Paranormal Society
Ashley became interested in the paranormal at a young age, but at that young age she did not have much understanding in it at all. I wasn’t until 2010 that she really became interested. Thanks to a Resolve carpet cleaning can that flew across the room, Ashley among three others who witness what happen that night, they pulled a team together. Ashley is a heavy researcher and though she may find the answer to what she is searching for she’ll search even harder. She’s overly determined and takes her part in the paranormal field very seriously. Between working hard and spending every dime she had she became a found of a paranormal team that is based out of Historic Louisiana and was honored to take on a position as a Representative with The National Paranormal Society. There is still so much she does not understand which drives her to work even harder and to further educate herself on everything.
Ashley Ann Lewis

Latest posts by Ashley Ann Lewis (see all)


Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) was the Reich Leader (Reichsführer) of the dreaded SS of the Nazi party from 1929 until 1945. Himmler presided over a vast ideological and bureaucratic empire that defined him for many—both inside and outside the Third Reich—as the second most powerful man in Germany during World War II. Given overall responsibility for the security of the Nazi empire, Himmler was the key and senior Nazi official responsible for conceiving and overseeing implementation of the so-called Final Solution, the Nazi plan to murder the Jews of Europe.

Himmler was born into a middle-class, conservative Catholic family in Munich, Germany, on October 7, 1900. His father, Gebhard, taught at the Ludwig academic high school (Gymnasium) in Munich. In 1913, Himmler’s family moved to Landshut, a town located about 40 miles northeast of Munich, after Himmler senior took the job of assistant principal of the Gymnasium in Landshut. An intelligent youngster with good capacity for organization, young Himmler was fervently patriotic. During World War I, he dreamed of service on the front as an officer and, using his reluctant father’s connections, left high school to begin training as an officer candidate on January 1, 1918. On November 11, 1918, however, before Himmler’s training was complete, Germany signed the armistice that would end World War I.

Himmler graduated from high school in Landshut in July 1919. After the restrictions imposed on Germany by the Versailles peace treaty dashed his hopes of joining the army (Reichswehr), he studied agriculture at the Technical University in Munich. There he joined a German-nationalist student fraternity and began to read deeply in the racist-nationalist (völkisch) literature popular on the radical right of the interwar German political spectrum. By the time he received his university degree in August 1922, Himmler was a fanatical völkisch nationalist and a political activist.

Forced to take a job in a manure-processing factory in Schleissheim, near Munich, Himmler made contact with the National Socialists through SA chief of staff Ernst Röhm. In August 1923, he joined the Nazi party, to which he devoted his career after he quit his job one month later. On November 9, 1923, Himmler marched with Hitler, Röhm, Hermann Göring, and other Nazi leaders in the Beer Hall Putsch against the German government.

Unemployed and at loose ends after the collapse of the putsch, Himmler found work as secretary and personal assistant to Gregor Strasser, whom Hitler appointed Reich Propaganda Leader of the Nazi party in 1926. Himmler also built his own reputation in the party as a speaker and organizer. His speeches stressed the following themes: “race consciousness,” cult of the German race, the need for German expansion and settlements, and the struggle against eternal enemies of Germany. These “eternal enemies” were “Jewish” capital, “Marxism” (i.e., socialism, communism, and anarchism), liberal democracy, and the Slavic peoples. As he built up his political reputation, he found time in 1928 to marry Margarete Boden, who bore him a daughter, Gudrun, in 1929.

On January 6, 1929, Adolf Hitler, the Führer (Leader) of the Nazi party, appointed Himmler Reichsführer SS. The SS, which in 1929 totaled 280 men, was subordinate to the SA and had two major functions: to serve as bodyguards for Hitler and other Nazi leaders and to hawk subscriptions for the Nazi party newspaper, Der Völkischer Beobachter (The Race-Nationalist Observer). From this insignificant beginning, Himmler perceived an opportunity to develop an elite corps of the Nazi party. By the time the Nazis seized power in January 1933, the SS numbered more than 52,000. Himmler also introduced two key functions to the SS that related to the Nazi party’s long-term core goals for Germany: internal security and guardianship over racial purity.

After deploying his SS in April 1931 to crush a revolt by the Berlin SA against Hitler’s leadership (inspiring the adoption of the SS motto, “My honor is loyalty”), Himmler created the Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst; SD) in the summer of 1931. The SD kept tabs on Hitler’s opponents within the Nazi party and gathered intelligence on leaders and activities of other political parties as well as on government officials, both federal and local. In August 1934, Nazi party Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess announced that the SD would henceforth be the sole political intelligence gathering and evaluating agency in the Third Reich.

On the last day of 1931, Himmler also established a Race and Settlement Office (Rasse- und Siedlungsamt) of the SS to evaluate applications of SS men seeking to marry under a new internal “Marriage Decree.” The “expertise” developed in this role of maintaining “racial purity” in the SS would, in wartime, determine whether an individual was “German” or not. At a minimum, a positive determination meant a job and better rations in German-occupied territory during World War II; at a maximum, the decision on ethnicity could be a decision on life and death.

In the five years after the Nazis seized power in January 1933, Himmler built an unassailable position for the SS by taking control of the German police forces. On March 9, 1933, he was appointed provisional president of police in Munich. Three weeks later, he was named Commander of the Bavarian Political Police. By late 1934, Himmler sought and obtained command of each of the state political police departments in Germany, and had centralized them within a single new agency in Berlin, the Secret State Police (Geheime Staatspolizei; Gestapo).

After Hitler appointed him Reichsführer SS and Chief of German Police on June 17, 1936, Himmler centralized the various criminal police detective forces in Germany into the Reich Criminal Police Office (Reichskriminalpolizeiamt) and united the Gestapo and Criminal Police in the Security Police Main Office (Hauptamt Sicherheitspolizei). In September 1939, Himmler fused the Security Police and the SD into the Reich Security Main Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt; RSHA), the agency that would be tasked with implementing the Holocaust in 1941-1942. Himmler also unified and centralized the uniformed police forces (Ordnungspolizei; Orpo) in Germany.

In 1933-1934, Himmler also secured for his SS control over a centralized concentration system. Although various civilian authorities and police agencies had established autonomous concentration camps during 1933 to incarcerate political enemies of the Nazi government, Hitler—who was impressed with the Dachau concentration camp established by the SS in March 1933—authorized Himmler to create a centralized concentration camp system. Though this SS Inspectorate of Concentration Camps reduced the number of concentration camps to four in 1937, the system grew in wartime to include 30-40 main camps and hundreds of subcamps. SS camp authorities would kill around two million prisoners—Jews, political prisoners, Roma (Gypsies), so-called asocials, recidivist convicts, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and others—in the concentration camp system.

As a reward for its role in murdering Ernst Röhm and the top leadership of the SA on June 30-July 2, 1934, Hitler announced that the SS was an independent organization and that Himmler was subordinate to Hitler in Hitler’s new capacity as Führer of Germany, a position that placed his authority outside the legal constraints of the German state. This command relationship was the basis for the immense power that Himmler accumulated during World War II. By tying the German police forces organizationally to the SS, Himmler effectively removed police personnel, finances, actions, and operations from external judicial or administrative review. As Reichsführer SS, Himmler received authority directly from Hitler to carry out ideological policies that the laws of the state might not permit. This ideologically-rooted “Führer authority” enabled authorization of indefinite incarceration and mass murder. The Nazi leaders justified this extra-legal chain of command and the policies initiated under its authorization by the national emergency legislation following the Reichstag Fire in 1933 and the intensified emergency created by the war.

Himmler expanded his authority during the war. On October 7, 1939, shortly after Germany conquered and partitioned Poland with the Soviet Union, Hitler appointed Himmler Reich Commissar for the Strengthening of German Ethnic Stock (Reichskommissar für die Festigung deutschen Volkstums; RKFDV), a position that authorized Himmler and the SS to plan, initiate, and control the pace of German resettlement projects in occupied Poland, and, later, the Soviet Union. As RKFDV, organizations under Himmler’s command had the final say over who was German, where ethnic Germans should live, and what populations should be moved out or annihilated in order to make room for the Germans settlers.

In July 1941, Hitler extended Himmler’s authority for both security and settlement operations to the occupied Soviet Union. Himmler’s exclusive responsibility for security behind the immediate front line authorized the mobile killing units (Einsatzgruppen) and other SS and police units to initiate and direct the mass murder of Jews, Soviet officials, Roma (Gypsies), and people with disabilities living in institutions with the support of German military and civilian occupation authorities. With Hitler’s agreement, the SS, within the rubric of its responsibilities for security and settlement issues, assumed the leadership role in planning and implementing the so-called Final Solution of the Jewish Question as well as in annihilation operations throughout the Reich against Roma (Gypsies) and people with disabilities living in institutions.

In 1937, the SS took control of the Ethnic German Liaison Office (Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle), which ministered to the needs of ethnic Germans living outside the Reich. Among those needs were clothing and household equipment for newly resettled ethnic German communities. These items the SS supplied in part from the personal property taken from Jews murdered at the killing centers.

Perhaps in reflection of the growing power of the SS in the state, Hitler appointed Himmler Minister of the Interior in July 1943; of equal significance was the fact that the appointment meant little in the reality of power in the Third Reich.

In order to strengthen the position of the SS relative to the established German elites after a victorious war, Himmler persuaded Hitler in late 1939 to permit the establishment of an armed SS force, known as the Waffen SS. Although initially restricted to four divisions, the Waffen SS eventually fielded more than 20 Divisions, putting half a million men under arms and establishing a command and operations structure to rival the German Army. That same year Himmler established a separate SS disciplinary system, since neither civilian nor military courts had jurisdiction to investigate criminal acts perpetrated by members of the SS and police or their auxiliary units.

As military defeats reduced the prestige of the generals in Hitler’s view, Himmler’s SS further encroached on the authority of the German armed forces. In February 1944, the Security Police and SD took over control of the Armed Forces Intelligence Service. After the failure of the military putsch of July 20, 1944, Hitler appointed Himmler Commander of the Replacement Army (a position responsible for training and overseeing military personnel) and gave him command of matters relating to prisoners of war. In December 1944, Himmler realized his old dream to have a command in the field, when Hitler appointed him commander-in-chief of Army Group Upper Rhine in southwestern Germany.

Despite appearances to the outside, Himmler was not all-powerful in the Third Reich. His most significant and powerful rival during the last year of the war was Martin Bormann, Hitler’s Secretary and chief of the Nazi party Chancellery. The Nazi party apparatus, anchored in the political power of the Nazi party District Leaders (Gauleiter) who also held positions in the State as Regional Defense Commissars, increased in significance as the war came home to Germany with the invasion of the Allied armies. Likewise, Albert Speer, the Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production, wielded great power in the last years of the war, despite his postwar protestations of powerlessness vis-à-vis the SS.

Some have perceived Himmler to be a crackpot, whose fascination with the occult, interest in impractical projects (such as searching for the origins of the Aryan race in Tibet), visions of himself as the reincarnation of a medieval German emperor, and pedantic attention to the personal lifestyles, marital problems, and financial snafus of his SS officers and men permitted his subordinates—like Security Police and SD chief Reinhard Heydrich—to really run the SS behind the scenes, tolerating Himmler’s eccentricities as a suitable cover for their own more practical ambitions. This view is inaccurate. A skilled organizer and a capable manager who understood how to obtain and use power, Himmler was the ideological and organizational driving force behind the rise of the SS. Moreover, he understood his SS men and knew how to secure their loyalty to his own person and to the concept of the Nazi elite to which they belonged. His ability to give his subordinates leeway to exercise initiative to implement Nazi policy was a significant factor in the murderous success of many SS operations. When he took over the SS, Himmler recognized the importance of internal security and determination of racial purity for the Nazi movement and successfully expanded the functions of the SS to meet these ideological and practical needs. Himmler understood the importance of police power separated from legal constraint and state supervision; Himmler persuaded Hitler—over the arguments of powerful rivals in the party and the state—that fusion of SS and police would forge the instrument for the Nazi regime to achieve its core, long-term ideological goals.

It was Himmler whom Hitler entrusted with the planning and implementation of the “Final Solution.” In his most quoted speech, that of October 4, 1943, in Poznan to a gathering of SS generals, Himmler explicitly justified the mass murder of the European Jews in the following words: “In front of you here, I want to refer explicitly to a very serious matter….I mean here…the annihilation of the Jewish people…. Most of you will know what it means when 100 corpses lie side by side, or 500 or 1,000…. This page of glory in our history has never been written and will never be written….We had the moral right, we were obligated to our people to kill this people which wanted to kill us.”

After the failure of the July 20, 1944, putsch, Himmler toyed with the idea of negotiating a separate peace with the western Allies while continuing to fight the Soviet Union. During the winter of 1944-1945, he considered using concentration camp prisoners as a bargaining chip to initiate such negotiations. In April 1945, Himmler met with the representative of the World Jewish Congress in Stockholm, Sweden, Hilel Storch, to discuss openings for negotiations. In part because the Allies would not negotiate with a man so implicated in Nazi crimes and in part because Himmler could not quite separate himself from Hitler or the belief that somehow the Germans would win the war, his half-hearted feelers came to nothing. In April 1945, Himmler asked Count Folke Bernadotte, the Vice President of the Swedish Red Cross, to transmit an offer of surrender on the western front to General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the commander-in-chief of the Allied forces. News of the offer reached Hitler in encircled Berlin on the night of April 28-29, 1945. In one of his last official acts, Hitler stripped Himmler of all of his offices and ordered his arrest.

Despite having continuously assured his SS officers and men that he ultimately would take responsibility for all of their actions, the end of the war found Himmler dressed in Secret Field Police uniform with papers in the name of Heinrich Hitzinger. Captured by Russian soldiers on May 20, 1945, he was turned over to the British, to whom he eventually confessed his identity. On May 23, 1945, while undergoing a body search, Himmler killed himself by biting down on a cyanide capsule hidden in his mouth for that very purpose.

Jan 12

Max Heindel

Ashley Ann Lewis

Ashley Ann Lewis

Director / Dept Chair Occult at National Paranormal Society
Ashley became interested in the paranormal at a young age, but at that young age she did not have much understanding in it at all. I wasn’t until 2010 that she really became interested. Thanks to a Resolve carpet cleaning can that flew across the room, Ashley among three others who witness what happen that night, they pulled a team together. Ashley is a heavy researcher and though she may find the answer to what she is searching for she’ll search even harder. She’s overly determined and takes her part in the paranormal field very seriously. Between working hard and spending every dime she had she became a found of a paranormal team that is based out of Historic Louisiana and was honored to take on a position as a Representative with The National Paranormal Society. There is still so much she does not understand which drives her to work even harder and to further educate herself on everything.
Ashley Ann Lewis

Latest posts by Ashley Ann Lewis (see all)


maxMax Heindel, born Carl Louis von Grasshoff in Aarhus, Denmark on July 23, 1865, was a Danish-American Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic. He died on January 6, 1919 at Oceanside, California, United States.

Early infancy
He was born into the noble family von Grasshoff, which was connected to the German Court during the lifetime of Prince Bismarck. The father of Max Heindel, Francois L. von Grasshoff, migrated to Copenhagen when he was a young man and married a Danish woman of noble birth. They had two sons and one daughter. The oldest of these sons was Carl Louis von Grasshoff, who later adopted the pen name of Max Heindel. The father died when the eldest son was six years of age, leaving the mother and three small children in straitened circumstances. Max Heindel’s infancy was thus lived in genteel poverty. His mother’s self-denial was carried to such an extreme that her small income was dedicated to private tutors for her sons and daughter, so that they might eventually take their place in society as members of the noble classes.

Life experience
Heindel left home at the age of sixteen to learn engineering at the ship-yards of Glasgow, Scotland. As Chief Engineer of a trading steamer, he traveled extensively, and eventually found himself working on one of the large passenger steamers of the Cunard Line plying between America and Europe. From 1895 to 1901, he was a consulting engineer in New York City. During this time he married, the marriage being terminated by the death of his wife in 1905. A son and two daughters were born of this marriage.

In 1903, Max Heindel moved to Los Angeles, California, seeking work. After attending lectures by the theosophist C.W. Leadbeater, he joined the Theosophical Society of Los Angeles, of which he became vice-president in 1904 and 1905. He also became a vegetarian, and began the study of astrology, which he felt gave him the key to unlocking the mysteries of man’s inner nature. He met his future wife Augusta Foss around this time. However, overwork and privation brought him severe heart trouble in 1905, and for months he lay at the point of death. Upon his recovery he said he was more keenly aware of the needs of humanity. He said that he spent much of the time during this illness out of his body, consciously working and seeking for the truth as he might find it on the invisible planes.

From 1906 to 1907 he started a lecture tour, in order to spread his occult knowledge. He began in San Francisco and then went to Seattle. After a course of lectures in that city he was again forced to spend some time in a hospital with valvular heart trouble. Upon his recovery, still undaunted, he once more took up his work of lecturing in the northwestern part of the United States.

Rosicrucian Initiate
In the fall of 1907, during a most successful period of lectures in Minnesota, he travelled to Berlin (Germany) with his friend Dr. Alma Von Brandis, who had been for months trying to persuade him, in order to hear a cycle of lectures by a teacher in the occult field called Rudolf Steiner. During his short stay at Germany, he developed a sincere admiration of the personality of this knowledgeable lecturer, as later shown in the dedication of his magnum opus (“esteemed teacher and value friend”). He sat in on several lectures and had one or two interviews with Steiner and he could learn about occult truth from the founder of later Anthroposophy, but at the same time he understood that this teacher could not help him to advance along the path of spiritual development. It was then, with his mind already made up to return, feeling that in vain he had given up a big work in America to take this trip, that Heindel reports to have been visited by a Spiritual being (clothed in his vital body).

The highly evolved entity that visited Heindel eventually identified himself as an Elder Brother of the Rosicrucian Order, an Order in the inner worlds formed in the year 1313 and having no direct connection to physical organizations which call themselves by this name. As he afterwards mentions, the Elder Brother gave him information which was concise and logical and beyond anything he was capable of writing. Later, he found out that during a previous visit of the Elder Brother, he was put to a test to determine his worthiness to be messenger of the Western Wisdom Teachings. He recounts that only then he was given instruction how to reach the etheric Temple of the Rose Cross, near the German/Bohemian border, and how at this Temple he was in direct communication with and under the personal instructions of the Elder Brothers of the Rose Cross. The Rosicrucian Order is described as being composed of twelve Elder Brothers, gathered around a thirteenth who is the invisible Head. These great Adepts, belonging to human evolution but having already advanced far beyond the cycle of rebirth, are reported as being among those exalted Beings who guide mankind’s evolution, the Compassionate Ones.

Heindel-Steiner connection
Current research on the connection between the two seers Max Heindel and Rudolf Steiner describes that “he[Heindel] felt that what Steiner was doing was not appropriate for America where pragmatism and clear linear thinking is predominant” and “that he did not find what he was looking for there (a Western oriented spirituality that was accessible to the general public)”. It is also described that Heindel’s magnum opus having a “more far-reaching body of Teachings” contains “information not otherwise available in the public domain or available without supersensible perception of an advanced degree”. This body of Teachings, Western Wisdom Teachings, was further developed in Heindel’s subsequent investigations and works and it is not available in Steiner or any other source as it contains material and specific clairvoyant accounts “not be found elsewhere in any occult sources”; thus, it is concluded through the available sources that “The similarities are due to a common source to both men (Rosicrucian influences and teachers)”.

Magnum opus
Heindel returned to America in the summer of 1908 where he at once started to formulate the Rosicrucian teachings, the Western Wisdom Teachings, which he had received from the Elder Brothers, published as a book entitled The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception in 1909. It is a reference work in the Christian mysticism practice and in the Occult study literature, containing the fundamentals of Esoteric Christianity from a Rosicrucian perspective. The Cosmo contains a comprehensive outline of the evolutionary processes of man and the universe, correlating the science of his day with religion. Part I is a treatise on the Visible and the Invisible Worlds, Man and the Method of Evolution, Rebirth and the Law of Cause and Effect. Part II takes up the scheme of Evolution in general and the Evolution of the Solar System and the Earth in particular. Part III treats of Christ and His Mission, Future Development of Man and Initiation, Esoteric Training and a Safe Method of Acquiring Firsthand Knowledge. A product of his time period, Heindel included assertions the modern reader would take issue with. The first edition was printed in 1909 and has changed little since then. Some of the science will seem outmoded. Some of the social commentary (for instance, on matters of race) may seem hopelessly dated, as well. It’s still being an interesting book, on the whole.

Esoteric school
From 1909 to 1919, suffering a severe heart condition and with an adverse financial situation, but with an indomitable will and great energy, Max Heindel was able to accomplish the great work for the Brothers of the Rose Cross. With the help, support and inspiration of his wife Augusta Foss, to whom in August 1910 he was joined in marriage, he gave successful teaching lectures; he sent correspondence lessons to the students, who formed groups in many of the larger cities; he wrote volumes which are translated into many languages all over the world; he founded The Rosicrucian Fellowship in 1909/11 at Mount Ecclesia, Oceanside (California); he published the Christian Esoteric magazine Rays from the Rose Cross in 1913 and, above all, he launched the Fellowship’s Spiritual Healing service.

It is described that, at his death, his body dropped slowly as if loving hands were holding him and laying him down gently; as he looked up, smiling into Mrs. Heindel’s face, he spoke his last words: “I am all right dear.”

Last, it is worthy of mention that the work prepared by Max Heindel has since been continued through students of the Western Wisdom Teachings who, as Invisible Helpers of mankind, assist the Elder Brothers of the Rose Cross to perform the Spiritual Healing around the world. This is the special work in which the Rosicrucian Order is interested and is provided according to the commands of Christ, namely, “Preach the gospel and heal the sick.”

For his Occult writings visit

Jan 08

Stephen William Hawking

Katie Snow

Katie Snow

Chair: Aliens & UFO's at Dead Ringer Paranormal
My name is Kathy Snow however in the Paranormal world I am simply known as katie! My team and I take the paranormal field very seriously and have been up and down the eastern seaboard investigating known and unknown locations. My team consists of all family members giving us the opportunity to work well together with no drama. I am a national as well as internationally published paranormal writer. Our evidence has been shown on My ghost story caught on camera and we work hard within our community to bring awareness and understanding to the field. There are four ordained ministers on the team. After 16 years in the field we no longer do in house investigations as we are out trying to find unknown haunted locations and we consult on cases other teams may have questions on. After founding 3 teams, we have recently relocated and our new team name is Dead Ringer Paranormal. We are proud of the work we do and try to show the community it is a scientific field of study and a lot of work goes into what we all do. We are an old world team meaning we investigate with just what we need, we do not hook up wires and tons of equipment, we believe in studying the paranormal in traditional proven ways. I am excited and proud to have been asked to be a rep for NPS..
Katie Snow

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Stephen William Hawking a former Lucasian Professor of mathematics and author of “A Brief History In Time” who is currently the Director of Mathematics and Theoretical Physics and Founder of the for Theoretical Cosomology Dept. for the University Of Cambridge was born on the 8th of Jan 1942. Wanting to study Mathematics his father would have preferred his son to study medicine. Since Mathematics was not available in the University College he pursued the study of Physics and after three years was awarded an honors degree in the Natural Sciences.

Stepehen then went on to the University of Cambridge to pursue Cosomology however there were again no one working in that field so he studied under Denis Sciama and gained his Ph.D. and moved on to the Institute of Astronomy and leaving in 1973.Stephen then came back to Cambridge where he returned to Mathematics and Theoretical Physics and began holding the Lucasian titleshortly thereafter.

The Title of Lucisian Professor was created and founded in 1663 with funds left in the will of the Reverend Henry Lucas who was an important member of Parliament for the University. The title had been held by famous by names of distinction such as Isaac Barrow as wellas Iaasc Newton.

Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. With Roger Penrose he showed that Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated that it wasnecessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory, the other great Scientific development of the first half of the 20th Century.One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but rather should emit
radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in imaginary time. Thiswould imply that the way the universe began was completely determined by the laws of science.

shawking2His many publications include The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with G F R Ellis, General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey, with W Israel, and 300 Years of Gravity, with W Israel. Among the popular books Stephen Hawking has published are his best seller A Brief History of Time, Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays, The Universe in a Nutshell, The Grand Design and My Brief History.

Professor Hawking has twelve honorary degrees. He was awarded the CBE in 1982, and was made a Companion of Honor in 1989. He is the recipient of many awards, medals and prizes, is a Fellow of The Royal Society and a Member of the US National Academy of Sciences.

Stephen was diagnosed with ALS, a form of Motor Neurone Disease, shortly after his 21st birthday. In spite of being wheelchair bound and dependent on a computerized voice system for communication Stephen Hawking continues to combine family life (he has three children and threegrandchildren), and his research into theoretical physics together with an extensive program of travel and public lectures. He still hopes to make it into space one day.


Jan 07

Harry Houdini


Born Erich Weisz on March 24, 1874, in Budapest, Hungary, young Harry Houdini moved with his family to Appleton, Wisconsin, where he later claimed he was born. Fascinated with magic, he began performing and drew attention for his daring feats of escape. In 1893, he married Wilhelmina Rahner, who became his onstage partner as well. Houdini continued performing escape acts until his death, on October 31, 1926, in Detroit, Michigan.

In 1899, Houdini’s act caught the attention of Martin Beck, an entertainment manager who soon got him booked at some of the best vaudeville venues in the country, followed by a tour of Europe. Houdini’s feats would involve the local police, who would strip search him, place him in shackles and lock him in their jails. The show was a huge sensation, and he soon became the highest-paid performer in American vaudeville.

Steve and Patricia Hanson related in a Los Angeles magazine article that Houdini became interested in “making contact with those who had gone beyond” after his mother’s death in 1913. His attempts in this area brought him into contact with writer Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930), the creator of the Sherlock Holmes character. In 1908, as a publicity stunt, Houdini had written a letter to “Holmes,” asking for help in catching crooks who were stealing his tricks. By 1920 the two men had formed a friendship based on their talent and their grief—just as Houdini had lost his beloved mother, Doyle had lost his son, Kingsley, who had been killed in World

War I (1914–18; a war in which Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Japan fought against Great Britain, France, Russia, and the United States). Each man sought ways to make contact with the spirit world.

After a while the friendship began to weaken. Houdini was not as strong a believer as Doyle. Part of Houdini’s career was devoted to exposing fakes who pretended to be able to contact spirits. As the Hansons noted in Los Angeles, Houdini felt that Doyle was too blinded by grief to see clearly, and Doyle thought that Houdini was not open-minded enough and was too anxious to expose fraud. The two men’s friendship ended.

Houdini continued his act in the United States in the early 1900s, constantly upping the ante from handcuffs and uewb_05_img0356straightjackets to locked, water-filled tanks and nailed packing crates. He was able to escape because of both his uncanny strength and his equally uncanny ability to pick locks. In 1912, his act reached its pinnacle, the Chinese Water Torture Cell, which would be the hallmark of his career. In it, Houdini was suspended by his feet and lowered upside-down in a locked glass cabinet filled with water, requiring him to hold his breath for more than three minutes to escape. The performance was so daring and such a crowd-pleaser that it remained in his act until his death in 1926.

Though there are mixed reports as to the cause of Henry Houdini’s death, it is certain that he suffered from acute appendicitis. Whether his demise was caused by a McGill University student who was testing his will by punching him in the stomach (with permission) or by poison from a band of angry Spiritualists is unknown. What is known is that he died of peritonitis from a ruptured appendix on October 31, 1926, at the age of 52, in Detroit, Michigan.

After his death, Houdini’s props and effects were used by his brother Theodore Hardeen, who eventually sold them to magician and collector Sidney H. Radner. Much of the collection could be see at the Houdini Museum in Appleton, Wisconsin, until Radner auctioned it off in 2004. Most of the prized pieces, including the Water Torture Cell, went to magician David Copperfield.

World Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved January 7, 2015, from

(n.d.). Retrieved January 7, 2015, from



Jan 05

Budd Hopkins

Katie Snow

Katie Snow

Chair: Aliens & UFO's at Dead Ringer Paranormal
My name is Kathy Snow however in the Paranormal world I am simply known as katie! My team and I take the paranormal field very seriously and have been up and down the eastern seaboard investigating known and unknown locations. My team consists of all family members giving us the opportunity to work well together with no drama. I am a national as well as internationally published paranormal writer. Our evidence has been shown on My ghost story caught on camera and we work hard within our community to bring awareness and understanding to the field. There are four ordained ministers on the team. After 16 years in the field we no longer do in house investigations as we are out trying to find unknown haunted locations and we consult on cases other teams may have questions on. After founding 3 teams, we have recently relocated and our new team name is Dead Ringer Paranormal. We are proud of the work we do and try to show the community it is a scientific field of study and a lot of work goes into what we all do. We are an old world team meaning we investigate with just what we need, we do not hook up wires and tons of equipment, we believe in studying the paranormal in traditional proven ways. I am excited and proud to have been asked to be a rep for NPS..
Katie Snow

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Born in 1951 Budd Hopkins was a Sculptor, Artist and a important figure in UFO Research. He was the founder of the Intruders Foundation, a nonprofit, scientific research and support organization and investigated over 700 cases of alien abduction as well as writing 3 prominent books on the subject. His books are considered he most influential series of books yet published on  the abduction phenomenon. These works, his Hopkins’ lectures, and his other presentations have been responsible for bringing a number of other noted researchers-David Jacobs, John Carpenter, Yvonne Smith, and John Mack, among others-into this extraordinary area of specialization. One of his most interesting investigations in which he wrote the book “Witnessed” The Linda Cortile Napolitano Story took six years to investigate and he was quoted as saying:

“Either it’s a hoax, with many people going to an awful lot of trouble and expense to set it up, or it actually happened. After six years of research we have more than 20 people who either were involved in it or were witnesses to it.”

hopkins2Budd Hopkins expierenced an UFO sighting himself in 1964 in Cape Cod Massachutes. It was during daylight hours and lasted about threeminutes. He was with two friends who also were witness. At first they thought it to be some sort of flattened balloon but obvious to them it could hover and move at great speeds. This was the beginning of his research into the realm of UFO and Alien Abductions andhe began to research heavily into other sightings. Before long others started writing to him and telling him of their expeirences.

Realizing abductions and sightings can be overwhelming, Mr Hopkins started his foundation. In 1992 a made-for-television film “Intruders”features fictionalized characters based on the works of Budd Hopkins and psychiatrist John E. Mack.

hopkins3Mr Hopkins passed away in Manhattan in August 2011 however his great strides in the UFO Research can never be forgotten.Because of his works and Foundation he has made great headway into this part of the Fringe Sciences.


Dec 21

Thomas Glenndenning Hamilton

hamiltonThomas Glenndenning Hamilton (1873-1935)  was a physician in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. As Founder and President of the Winnipeg Society for Psychical Research, Hamilton conducted systematic research on physical mediumship in a laboratory in his home over a period of 15 years.

T. Glen Hamilton, TGH or Glen as he came to be known, was born on November 27, 1873, into a farmer’s family in Agincourt, Ontario, now a part of Toronto. The Hamiltons moved in 1891 to Winnipeg, where Glen attended college, and taught school for a period before studying medicine. After graduating from Manitoba Medical College in 1903, he did a year’s internship as house surgeon at Winnipeg General Hospital, and established a private medical practice. In 1906, he married Lillian May Forrester, a nurse. The Hamiltons had four children James, Margaret, Arthur, and Glen.

TGH was active in community and medical affairs, serving on the Winnipeg School Board for nine years, from 1906 until his selection as Liberal member for Elmwood to the Manitoba Legislative Assembly in 1915, a position he held until 1920. In 1916 he became the first chairman of the Winnipeg Committee on Mothers’ Pensions. He was elected president of the Manitoba medical Association for 1921-22. From 1922-23, he was president of the Canadian Medical Association, and from 1923-31, he was the Manitoba representative on the Executive of the association. He also taught medical jurisprudence and act as an examiner in clinical surgery.

TGH was first attracted to psychical phenomena as an undergraduate, when he read an article by the Spiritualist W. T. Stead in the Review of Reviews. In 1918, he came across the Patience Worth publications, which greatly impressed him. The following year he devised and carried out a telepathy experiment, and begin widely in psychical research. His first practical experience with the psychic came in 1920, at a table-tilting session arranged by his wife in their home, at which the deceased Stead and Frederic W. H. Myers purported to communicate.

The Hamiltons became interested in the work of William J. Crawford, whose books on the Goligher Circle had recently been published. Mrs. Hamilton was struck by an apparent similarity between Kathleen Goligher and Elizabeth Poole, the medium at the Hamilton’s table-tilting session, and wondered whether people might have greater untapped abilities. Poole was willing to find out, and the woman began to hold weekly séances in the Hamilton home. Nothing unusual happened for several months, and they were about to give up the sittings, when suddenly their table reared up unto two legs. It remained so for several minutes, despite efforts to push it down. TGH was called in, and the phenomenon was repeated.

His curiosity aroused, TGH formed a small groups of sitters, with Poole as the medium. By March 1922, after some 40 séances, he had satisfied himself about three things: (1) a 10-pound wooden table would make powerful movements under Poole’s touch; (2) It would continue to make strong movements after she had removed her hands; and (3) the rappings he and the others sitters heard showed signs of intelligence in their responses to questions. He accepted the table movements as Evidence of paranormal activity, but he was skeptical of the idea that the raps really were communications for Stead and Myers.

TGH decided to give up the psychic work. He had satisfied his curiosity and he was much aware how this research would be regarded by his medical colleagues. But it was a decision he found impossible to carry through. Nine months later, at an impromptu séance held for a visiting friend, Stead advised him to go on with his work, predicting that there was more to come. Impressed, TGH told his wife that if she could get together a suitable group of people, he would find time to continue. The sitter group which Mr. Hamilton formed over time consisted of our medical doctors, a lawyer, a civil engineer, and an electrical engineer, In addition to the Hamiltons. Poole and two other nonprofessional mediums were engaged. And, perhaps most significantly, a special séance room was outfitted in the Hamiltons’ house. This room was furnished with an open medium’s Cabinet, a 12-pound wooden table, and chairs arranged in a half circle facing a cabinet. There was a ruby-color light in the ceiling, equipped with a dimmer. There were also a large battery of cameras of various tapes, some of them stereoscopics, positioned at the end of the room. These could be operated by remote control with the aid of a push-button device TGH invented. TGH loaded all photographic plates and did all the developing, printing, and enlarging. A secretary took verbatim notes during séances. These arrangements, together with TGH’s standing in the community, greatly impressed many who heard him speak about his work in later years.

The settings began in April 1923. Many movements and partial levitations of the table occurred, some graphed, from various angles. Soon Poole began to enter a spontaneous trance. At first, her deep trances would last only a few minutes, but gradually they became longer. During these deep trances, Poole would be “invaded” by trance personalities, two of which-those purporting to be the writer Robert Louis Stevenson and the missionary-explorer David Livingstone- became regular communities communications. It was as a consequence messages from them that TGH ultimately became convinced of survival after death and the correctness of the spiritualist view of mediumistic communication. A woman whom had demonstrated some mediumistic ability and her occasional appearance with the group started to attend regularly in January 1928. In February, a control calling himself “Walter” and identifying himself as Mina Stinson Crandon’s control of the same name attached himself to this woman, Mary Marshall (Dawn). At Walter’s insistence, TGH built a bell box of the sort used in Crandon’s séances. This was a box with a hinged lid which, when pressed down, would bring two strips of metal into contact, and cause the bell to ring. Walter instructed TGH to place this bell box on a shelf in the séance room, where it would be heard to ring periodically at sittings. In July, Walter excused that the TGH photographs Marshall while the bell was ringing. In September, a developed plate shown very fine, thin cords connecting Marshall’s her head to the bell box, some three feet above. Walter explained that he had constructed the cords from the ectoplasm, allegedly a substance exuded by physical mediums that enables materializations to take place.

In October 1928, Walter announced that he would try something new. Between November 1928 and May 1929, photographs of miniature faces of the likeness of Charles Haddon Spurgeon, a preacher in England, appeared not long thereafter, the circle underwent another major development with some of the regular sitters falling into trance along with the designated mediums. Marshall, however, was the only one to produce ectoplasm. Photographs showed some of these to be attached to her head, others separated from it. They ranged in size from a silver dollar to substantial growths three or four feet in height and several inches thick. Several showed faces, and a few represented more fully formed figures, replete with hair and clothing.

As his research continued, TGH began to speak about it openly. He gave a presentation, which included displays of photographs, to the British Medical Association at its convention in Winnipeg in 1930. He was convinced that European psychical researchers were wrong in interpreting materialization as a psychokinetic action of the medium, and believed that the production of ectoplasm was under the control of the personality, as Walter claimed. TGH published a series of articles on his work in Spiritualist publications such as Light and Psychic Research in the early 1930’s, is only book, a compilation of his notes edited by his son James, appeared posthumously in 1942 as Intention and Survival. The title expressed the TGH’s conviction that séance communications were purposeful providing evidence of intentions, and therefore of a surviving intelligence.

TGH died of a heart attack on April 7, 1935, at the age of 61. After a hiatus of some months, the sittings were continued by Mrs. Hamilton, partly for the purpose of giving him the opportunity to communicate himself. As the Hamiltons’ daughter Margaret tells in her book Is Survival A Fact? (1969), the most significant of these new sittings occurred in February 1939, once more at Walter’s suggestion. TGH’s likeness was produced in ectoplasm, and through Marshall a TGH communicator referred to events known only to Mrs. Hamilton, and that had been forgotten consciously even by her. She and the other sitters were confident that TGH had indeed communicated his continued existence from the beyond.


Dean, K.E. comp. Register of the Thomas Glenndenning Hamilton Collection. URL
Hamilton, Margaret. Is Survival A Fact? London: Psychic Press, 1969
Hamilton, T. Glen. Intention and Survival. Edited by James Ha
milton, Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1942
University of Manitoba Libraries, Archieves and Special Collections, Thomas Glenndenning Hamilton collection, MSS14. URL