Jean-Claude Duvalier (French: [ʒɑ̃klod dyvalje]), nicknamed “Bébé Doc” or “Baby Doc” (July 3, 1951 – October 4, 2014), was the President of Haiti from 1971 until his overthrow by a popular uprising in 1986. He succeeded his father François “Papa Doc” Duvalier as the ruler of Haiti after the latter’s death in 1971. After assuming power, he introduced cosmetic changes to his father’s regime and delegated much authority to his advisors, though thousands of Haitians were killed or tortured, and hundreds of thousands fled the country. He maintained a notoriously lavish lifestyle (including a state-sponsored US$2 million wedding in 1980), and made millions from involvement in the drug trade and from selling body parts from dead Haitians while poverty among his people remained the most widespread of any country in the Western Hemisphere.
Relations with the United States improved after Duvalier’s ascension to the presidency, and later deteriorated under the Carter administration, only to again improve under Ronald Reagan due to the strong anti-communist stance of the Duvaliers.
Duvalier unexpectedly returned to Haiti on January 16, 2011, after two decades in self-imposed exile in France. The following day, he was arrested by Haitian police, facing possible charges for embezzlement. On January 18, Duvalier was charged with corruption. On February 28, 2013, Duvalier pleaded not guilty to charges of corruption and human rights abuse. He died of a heart attack on October 4, 2014, at the age of 63.