Ken is a graphic designer, web developer and co-founder of One True Paranormal, a para-group in southwest Missouri.
When you see a photo of Glamis Castle, or the actual castle itself, it’s like looking at something straight out of the pages of many fairytales. You would never believe that it is considered to be the most haunted castle in Scotland. Over the years, there have been legends and stories, that in addition to ghosts, include a witch and a vampire that call this magnificent castle “home”.
[pullquote align=”left|center|right” textalign=”left|center|right” width=”30%”] Did the devil actually take Beardie’s soul and condemn him to play cards until doomsday? There have been numerous reports of Beardie standing over the beds of children watching them and loud shouts coming from him.[/pullquote]There was a village here, many years before a royal hunting lodge or castle were even thought of, that can be traced all the way back to the 8th century. An Irish missionary by the name of Fergus settled in this area in 710 A.D. The church St. Fergus Kirk, was named after him. There was a Pictish stone found in the nearby village of Eassie, that shows there are prehistoric traces in this area. A Royal Hunting Lodge stood at the site in 1034, where King Malcolm II was murdered. Shakespeare’s play, “Macbeth” has the character of Macbeth dying at Glamis Castle, even though the actual King Macbeth had no connection to the castle at all.
Sir John Lyon, Thane of Glamis, married King Robert II’s daughter in 1376 and a castle was built that has remained in the Lyon’s and Bowes-Lyon’s family since that time, except for a time when King James V lived in the home.
There is a legend involving Earl Beardie from the 15th century. There are several versions of the story, but they all revolve around Earl Beardie playing cards. The story takes place on a Sunday and according to 2 of the stories, either his hosts refused to play cards with him, or a servant advised him to stop because it was after all the Sabbath. Lord Beardie became so enraged that he vowed to play cards until doomsday, or with the actual Devil, depending on the version of the story. A stranger suddenly shows up at the castle and joins the Earl in a game of cards. The stranger is identified with the Devil. The 2 men basically rocked the castle with their swearing and yelling. One story includes a servant that tried to take a peak into the room where they were playing, thru the keyhole and was struck blind. Lord Beardie was found dead the next morning. Did the devil actually take Beardie’s soul and condemn him to play cards until doomsday? There have been numerous reports of Beardie standing over the beds of children watching them and loud shouts coming from him.
The 6th Lord Glamis, John Lyon, married a woman by the name of Janet Douglas. She was the daughter of the Master of Angus, who at the time was involved in a feud with King James V. Janet was accused of treason against the King in December of 1528, for bringing supporters of the Earl of Angus to Edinburgh. Her husband, the 6th Lord of Glamis, had died on Sept. 17, 1528, so she was charged with poisoning him. She was eventually accused of witchcraft and burned at the stake at Edinburgh on July 17, 1537.
There is a small chapel in the castle. The chapel is still used today, but 1 seat is always left vacant and no one is allowed to sit there. This seat has been reserved for the “Grey Lady”, a ghost that is said to live at the castle. The Grey Lady is thought to be the ghost of Jane Douglas, Lady Glamis. She has been seen and felt by a number of visitors to the castle over the past 3 centuries. She walks around the chapel and has also been seen above the clock tower.
The most famous legend associated with the castle is the Monster of Glamis. The “monster” was supposedly a hideously deformed child that was born into the family. Some of these stories came from the accounts of a singer and composer by the name of Virginia Gabriel who stayed in the castle during 1870. In her story, the “monster” was kept in the castle for its’ entire life and his rooms were bricked up after his death. Another version of this story is that every generation of the family has had a vampire child born into the family and is walled up in the room
It is said that guests of the castle once hung towels from the windows of every single room, trying to find the bricked up room where the “monster” lived. As the story goes, when they would look at the building from the outside, there were several windows that did not have towels hanging from them.
Some think that the legend of the “monster” was inspired by a true story. There was a family by the name of Ogilvie. They sought protection from a family that was their enemy at the castle. Somewhere inside the 16 ft. thick walls of the castle is the famous “room of skulls”, where the Ogilvie family were all walled up and died of starvation.
Hamish Rue Glamis, the 9th Laird of Glamis, was executed for treason after being betrayed by the Ruthven family. His ghost has been seen several times in full Scottish regalia. It is said that if you hear Scottish music being played, that this is signaling the specture funeral procession of Hamish. You can see 6 dark figures carrying a blackened coffin across the castle grounds.
Other stories include a “tongue-less woman”. She has been seen running across the castle grounds at midnight, tearing at her mouth. There are other reports of screaming, banging noises and doors that refuse to stay closed, even after they have been bolted and hammered shut. There is a story of a young black boy that is seen sitting in an old stone seat by the door of the Queen’s bedroom. There have reports of this sighting for at least 200 years.
Glamis Castle is open to the public. If you feel like taking a vacation or trip to Scotland, be sure to check out this magnificent piece of Scottish history and maybe…..just maybe if you are very lucky, you will see one of the past residents of the castle dropping in to tell you hello. Just beware of becoming involved in a card game with Lord Beardie.
For more information on Glamis Castle, you can go to their official website
Jacques de Molay (French: [də mɔlɛ]; c. 1243 – 18 March 1314) was the 23rd and last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, leading the Order from 20 April 1292 until it was dissolved by order of Pope Clement V in 1307.Though little is known of his actual life and deeds except for his last years as Grand Master, he is the best known Templar, along with the Order’s founder and first Grand Master, Hugues de Payens (1070–1136). Jacques de Molay’s goal as Grand Master was to reform the Order, and adjust it to the situation in the Holy Land during the waning days of the Crusades. As European support for the Crusades had dwindled, other forces were at work which sought to disband the Order and claim the wealth of the Templars as their own.
King Philip IV of France, deeply in debt to the Templars, had De Molay and many other French Templars arrested in 1307 and tortured into making false confessions. When De Molay later retracted his confession, Philip had him slowly burned upon a scaffold on an island in the River Seine in Paris, in March 1314. The sudden end of both the centuries-old order of Templars and the dramatic execution of its last leader turned De Molay into a legendary figure.
Little is known of his early years, but De Molay was probably born in Molay, Haute-Saône, in the County of Burgundy, at the time a territory ruled by Otto III as part of the Holy Roman Empire, and in modern times in the area of Franche-Comté, northeastern France. His birth year is not certain, but judging by statements made during the later trials, was probably between 1240 and 1250. He was born, as most Templar knights were, into a family of minor or middle nobility. It is said he was dubbed a Knight at age 21 in 1265 and that he was executed in 1314 at age 70. These two facts lead to the belief that he was born in 1244. In 1265, as a young man, he was received into the Order of the Templars in a chapel at the Beaune House, by Humbert de Pairaud, the Visitor of France and England. Another prominent Templar in attendance was Amaury de la Roche, Templar Master of the province of France. Around 1270, De Molay went to the East (Outremer), though little is remembered of his activities for the next 20 years.
After the Fall of Acre to the Egyptian Mamluks in 1291, the Franks (Europeans) who were able to do so retreated to the island of Cyprus. It became the headquarters of the dwindling Kingdom of Jerusalem, and the base of operations for any future military attempts by the Crusaders against the Egyptian Mamluks, who for their part were systematically conquering any last Crusader strongholds on the mainland. Templars in Cyprus included Jacques de Molay and Thibaud Gaudin, the 22nd Grand Master. During a meeting assembled on the island in the autumn of 1291, De Molay spoke of reforming the Order, and put himself forward as an alternative to the current Grand Master. Gaudin died around 1292 and, as there were no other serious contenders for the role at the time, De Molay was soon elected.
In spring 1293, he began a tour of the West to try to muster more support for a reconquest of the Holy Land. Developing relationships with European leaders such as Pope Boniface VIII, Edward I of England, James I of Aragon and Charles II of Naples, De Molay’s immediate goals were to strengthen the defence of Cyprus and rebuild the Templar forces. From his travels, he was able to secure authorization from some monarchs for the export of supplies to Cyprus, but could obtain no firm commitment for a new Crusade. There was talk of merging the Templars with one of the other military orders, the Knights Hospitaller. The Grand Masters of both orders opposed such a merger, but pressure increased from the Papacy.
It is known that De Molay held two general meetings of his order in southern France, at Montpellier in 1293 and at Arles in 1296, where he tried to make reforms. In the autumn of 1296, De Molay was back in Cyprus to defend his order against the interests of Henry II of Cyprus, which conflict had its roots back in the days of Guillaume de Beaujeu.
From 1299 to 1303, De Molay was engaged in planning and executing a new attack against the Mamluks. The plan was to coordinate actions between the Christian military orders, the King of Cyprus, the aristocracy of Cyprus, the forces of Cilician Armenia, and a new potential ally, the Mongols of the Ilkhanate (Persia), to oppose the Egyptian Mamluks and retake the coastal city of Tortosa in Syria. For generations, there had been communications between the Mongols and Europeans towards the possibility of forging a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Mamluks, but without success. The Mongols had been repeatedly attempting to conquer Syria themselves, each time being forced back either by the Egyptian Mamluks, or having to retreat because of a civil war within the Mongol Empire, such as having to defend from attacks from the Mongol Golden Horde to the north.
In 1299, the Ilkhanate again attempted to conquer Syria, having some preliminary success against the Mamluks in the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar in December 1299.
In 1300, De Molay and other forces from Cyprus put together a small fleet of 16 ships which committed raids along the Egyptian and Syrian coasts. The force was commanded by King Henry II of Jerusalem, the king of Cyprus, accompanied by his brother, Amalric, Lord of Tyre, and the heads of the military orders, with the ambassador of the Mongol leader Ghazan also in attendance. The ships left Famagusta on 20 July 1300, and under the leadership of Admiral Baudouin de Picquigny, raided the coasts of Egypt and Syria: Rosetta, Alexandria, Acre, Tortosa and Maraclea, before returning to Cyprus.
The Cypriots then prepared for an attack on Tortosa in late 1300, sending a joint force to a staging area on the island of Ruad, from which raids were launched on the mainland. The intent was to establish a Templar bridgehead to await assistance from Ghazan’s Mongols, but the Mongols failed to appear in 1300. The same happened in 1301 and 1302, and the island was finally lost in the Siege of Ruad on 26 September 1302, eliminating the Crusaders’ last foothold near the mainland. Following the loss of Ruad, De Molay abandoned the tactic of small advance forces, and instead put his energies into trying to raise support for a new major Crusade, as well as strengthening Templar authority in Cyprus. When a power struggle erupted between King Henry II and his brother Amalric, the Templars supported Amalric, who took the crown and had his brother exiled in 1306. Meanwhile, pressure increased in Europe that the Templars should be merged with the other military orders, perhaps all placed under the authority of one king, and that individual should become the new King of Jerusalem when it was conquered.
TRAVEL TO FRANCE
In 1305, the newly elected Pope Clement V asked the leaders of the military orders for their opinions concerning a new crusade and the merging of the orders. De Molay was asked to write memoranda on each of the issues, which he did during the summer of 1306. De Molay was opposed to the merger, believing instead that having separate military orders was a stronger position, as the missions of each order were somewhat different. He was also of the belief that if there were to be a new crusade, it needed to be a large one, as the smaller attempts were not effective.
On 6 June, the leaders of both the Templars and the Hospitallers were officially asked to come to the Papal offices in Poitiers to discuss these matters, with the date of the meeting scheduled as All Saints Day in 1306, though it later had to be postponed due to the Pope’s illness with gastro-enteritis. De Molay left Cyprus on 15 October, arriving in France in late 1306 or early 1307; however, the meeting was again delayed until late May due to the Pope’s illness.
King Philip IV of France, deeply in debt to the Templars, was in favor of merging the Orders under his own command, thereby making himself Rex Bellator, or War King. De Molay, however, rejected the idea. Philip was already at odds with the papacy, trying to tax the clergy, and had been attempting to assert his own authority as higher than that of the Pope.
For this, one of Clement’s predecessors, Pope Boniface VIII, had attempted to have Philip excommunicated, but Philip then had Boniface abducted and charged with heresy. The elderly Boniface was rescued, but then died of shock shortly thereafter. His successor Pope Benedict XI did not last long, dying in less than a year, possibly poisoned via Philip’s councillor Guillaume de Nogaret. It took a year to choose the next Pope, the Frenchman Clement V, who was also under strong pressure to bend to Philip’s will.
Clement moved the Papacy from Italy to Poitiers, France, where Philip continued to assert more dominance over the Papacy and the Templars. The leader of the Hospitallers, Fulk de Villaret, was also delayed in his travel to France, as he was engaged with a battle at Rhodes. He did not arrive until late summer, so while waiting for his arrival, de Molay met with the Pope on other matters, one of which was the charges by one or more ousted Templars who had made accusations of impropriety in the Templars’ initiation ceremony.
De Molay had already spoken with the king in Paris on 24 June 1307 about the accusations against his order and was partially reassured. Returning to Poitiers, De Molay asked the Pope to set up an inquiry to quickly clear the Order of the rumours and accusations surrounding it, and the Pope convened an inquiry on 24 August.
ARREST AND CHARGES
There were five initial charges lodged against the Templars. The first was the renouncement and spitting on the cross during initiation into the Order. The second was the stripping of the man to be initiated and the thrice kissing of that man by the preceptor on the navel, posteriors and the mouth. The third was telling the neophyte (novice) that unnatural lust was lawful and indulged in commonly. The fourth was that the cord worn by the neophyte day and night was consecrated by wrapping it around an idol in the form of a human head with a great beard, and that this idol was adored in all chapters. The fifth was that the priests of the order did not consecrate the host in celebrating Mass. Subsequently, the charges would be increased and would become, according to the procedures, lists of articles 86 to 127 in which will be added a few other charges, such as the prohibition to priests who do not belong to the order.
On 14 September, Philip took advantage of the rumors and inquiry to begin his move against the Templars, sending out a secret order to his agents in all parts of France to implement a mass arrest of all Templars at dawn on 13 October. Philip wanted the Templars arrested and their possessions confiscated to incorporate their wealth into the Royal Treasury and to be free of the enormous debt he owed the Templar Order.
De Molay was in Paris on 12 October, where he was a pallbearer at the funeral of Catherine of Courtenay, wife of Count Charles of Valois, and sister-in-law of King Philip. In a dawn raid on Friday, 13 October 1307, De Molay and sixty of his Templar brothers were arrested. Philip then had the Templars charged with heresy and many other trumped-up charges, most of which were identical to the charges which had previously been leveled by Philip’s agents against Pope Boniface VIII.
During forced interrogation by royal agents at the University of Paris on 24/25 October, De Molay confessed that the Templar initiation ritual included “denying Christ and trampling on the Cross”. He was also forced to write a letter asking every Templar to admit to these acts. Under pressure from Philip IV, Pope Clement V ordered the arrest of all the Templars throughout Christendom. The pope still wanted to hear De Molay’s side of the story, and dispatched two cardinals to Paris in December 1307. In front of the cardinals, De Molay retracted his earlier confessions. A power struggle ensued between the king and the pope, which was settled in August 1308 when they agreed to split the convictions.
Through the papal bull Faciens misericordiam, the procedure to prosecute the Templars was set out on a duality where one commission would judge individuals of the Order and a different commission would judge the Order as an entity. Pope Clement called for an ecumenical council to meet in Vienne in 1310 to decide the future of the Templars. In the meantime, the Order’s dignitaries, among them De Molay, were to be judged by the pope. In the royal palace at Chinon, De Molay was again questioned by the cardinals, but this time with royal agents present, and he returned to his forced admissions made in 1307.
In November 1309, the Papal Commission for the Kingdom of France began its own hearings, during which De Molay again recanted, stating that he did not acknowledge the accusations brought against his order. ny further opposition by the Templars was effectively broken when Philip used the previously forced confessions to sentence 54 Templars to be burnt at the stake on 10–12 May 1310. The council which had been called for 1310 was delayed for two years due to the length of the trials, but finally was convened in 1312.
On 22 March 1312, at the Council of Vienne, the Order of the Knights Templar was abolished by papal decree.
Of his death it is recorded: “The cardinals dallied with their duty until 18 March 1314, when, on a scaffold in front of Notre Dame, Jacques de Molay, Templar Grand Master, Geoffroi de Charney, Master of Normandy, Hugues de Peraud, Visitor of France, and Godefroi de Gonneville, Master of Aquitaine, were brought forth from the jail in which for nearly seven years they had lain, to receive the sentence agreed upon by the cardinals, in conjunction with the Archbishop of Sens and some other prelates whom they had called in.
Considering the offences which the culprits had confessed and confirmed, the penance imposed was in accordance with rule — that of perpetual imprisonment. The affair was supposed to be concluded when, to the dismay of the prelates and wonderment of the assembled crowd, De Molay and Geoffroi de Charney arose. They had been guilty, they said, not of the crimes imputed to them, but of basely betraying their Order to save their own lives. It was pure and holy; the charges were fictitious and the confessions false. Hastily the cardinals delivered them to the Prevot of Paris, and retired to deliberate on this unexpected contingency, but they were saved all trouble.
When the news was carried to Philippe he was furious. A short consultation with his council only was required. The canons pronounced that a relapsed heretic was to be burned without a hearing; the facts were notorious and no formal judgment by the papal commission need be waited for. That same day, by sunset, a pile was erected on a small island in the Seine, the Ile des Juifs, near the palace garden. There de Molay and de Charney were slowly burned to death, refusing all offers of pardon for retraction, and bearing their torment with a composure which won for them the reputation of martyrs among the people, who reverently collected their ashes as relics.” (Note: the account varies by one day, not unusual for chronicles of the middle ages.
September 2001, Barbara Frale found a copy of the Chinon Parchment in the Vatican Secret Archives, a document which explicitly confirms that in 1308 Pope Clement V absolved Jacques de Molay and other leaders of the Order including Geoffroi de Charney and Hugues de Pairaud. She published her findings in the Journal of Medieval History in 2004. Another Chinon parchment dated 20 August 1308 addressed to Philip IV of France, well-known to historians, stated that absolution had been granted to all those Templars that had confessed to heresy “and restored them to the Sacraments and to the unity of the Church”.
The sudden arrest of the Templars, the conflicting stories about confessions, and the dramatic deaths by burning, generated many stories and legends about both the Order, and its last Grand Master. Conquest of Jerusalem n France in the 19th century, false stories circulated that de Molay had captured Jerusalem in 1300. These rumors are likely related to the fact that the medieval historian the Templar of Tyre wrote about a Mongol general named “Mulay” who occupied Syria and Palestine for a few months in early 1300.
The Mongol Mulay and the Templar de Molay were entirely different people, but some historians regularly confused the two. The confusion was enhanced in 1805, when the French playwright/historian François Raynouard made claims that Jerusalem had been captured by the Mongols, with de Molay in charge of one of the Mongol divisions. “In 1299, the Grand-Master was with his knights at the taking of Jerusalem.” This story of wishful thinking was so popular in France, that in 1846 a large-scale painting was created by Claude Jacquand, titled Molay Prend Jerusalem, 1299 (“Molay Takes Jerusalem, 1299”), which depicts the supposed event.
Today the painting hangs in the Hall of the Crusades in the French national museum in Versailles. In the 1861 edition of the French encyclopedia, the Nouvelle Biographie Universelle, it even lists de Molay as a Mongol commander in its “Molay” article: “Jacques de Molay was not inactive in this decision of the Great Khan. This is proven by the fact that Molay was in command of one of the wings of the Mongol army.
With the troops under his control, he invaded Syria, participated in the first battle in which the Sultan was vanquished, pursued the routed Malik Nasir as far as the desert of Egypt: then, under the guidance of Kutluk, a Mongol general, he was able to take Jerusalem, among other cities, over the Muslims, and the Mongols entered to celebrate Easter” —Nouvelle Biographie Universelle, “Molay” article, 1861. Modern historians, however, state that the truth of the matter is this: There are indeed numerous ancient records of Mongol raids and occupations of Jerusalem (from Western, Armenian, or Arab sources), and in 1300 the Mongols did achieve a brief victory in Syria which caused a Muslim retreat, and allowed the Mongols to launch raids into the Levant as far as Gaza for a period of a few months.
During that year, rumors flew through Europe that the Mongols had recaptured Jerusalem and were going to return the city to the Europeans. However, this was only an urban legend, as the only activities that the Mongols had even engaged in were some minor raids through Palestine, which may or may not have even passed through Jerusalem itself. Regardless of what the Mongols may or may not have done, de Molay was never a Mongol commander, and probably never set foot in Jerusalem.
The Shroud of Turin Geoffroi de Charny (the French Knight who died at the 1356 battle of Poitiers) and his wife Jeanne de Vergy are the first reliably recorded owners of the Shroud of Turin. This Geoffroi participated in a failed crusade under Humbert II of Viennois in the late 1340s. He is sometimes confused with Templar Geoffroi de Charney.
Historical origin of “Inquisition” charge of an idol of a bearded man As stated above, of the five original accusations made against the Knights Templars one was the “worshipping of an idol of a man with a long beard”.
It specifically states: “… The cord which the Templars wore over the shirt day and night as a symbol of chastity had been consecrated by wrapping it around an idol in the form of a human head with a great beard, and this head was adored in the chapters …” The image was never found. It never mentions the image to be de Molay.
Further, it seems to describe a rounded idol. If it existed at all, and was not just a product of torture, it could not have been the Shroud of Turin just by its description. There were many early iconic images of a bearded Jesus that existed at that time. Curse It is said that Jacques de Molay cursed King Philip IV of France and his descendants from his execution pyre. The story of the shouted curse appears to be a combination of words by a different Templar, and those of de Molay.
An eyewitness to the execution stated that de Molay showed no sign of fear, and told those present that God would avenge their deaths. Another variation on this story was told by the contemporary chronicler Ferretto of Vicenza, who applied the idea to a Neapolitan Templar brought before Clement V, whom he denounced for his injustice. Some time later, as he was about to be executed, he appealed “from this your heinous judgement to the living and true God, who is in Heaven”, warning the pope that, within a year and a day, he and Philip IV would be obliged to answer for their crimes in God’s presence.
It is true that Philip and Clement V both died within a year of Molay’s execution, Clement finally succumbing to a long illness on 20 April 1314, and Philip in a hunting accident. Then followed the rapid succession of the last Direct Capetian kings of France between 1314 and 1328, the three sons and a grandson of Philip IV. Within 14 years from the death of de Molay, the 300-year-old House of Capet collapsed. This series of events forms the basis of Les Rois Maudits (The Accursed Kings), a series of historical novels written by Maurice Druon between 1955 and 1977, which was also turned into two French television miniseries in 1972 and 2005. The American historian Henry Charles Lea wrote: “Even in distant Germany Philippe’s death was spoken of as a retribution for his destruction of the Templars, and Clement was described as shedding tears of remorse on his death-bed for three great crimes, the poisoning of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, and the ruin of the Templars and Beguines”.
Some 400 years after the death of de Molay and the dissolution of the Knights Templar, the fraternal order of Freemasonry began to emerge in northern Europe. The Masons developed an elaborate mythos about their Order, and some claimed heritage from entities in history, ranging from the mystique of the Templars to the builders of Solomon’s Temple. The stories of the Templars’ secret initiation ceremonies also proved a tempting source for Masonic writers who were creating new works of pseudohistory. As described by modern historian Malcolm Barber in The New Knighthood: “It was during the 1760s that German masons introduced a specific Templar connection, claiming that the Order, through its occupation of the Temple of Solomon, had been the repository of secret wisdom and magical powers, which James of Molay had handed down to his successor before his execution and of which the eighteenth-century Freemasons were the direct heirs.”
The modern Masonic Knights Templar is an international philanthropic and chivalric order affiliated with Freemasonry, and begun in Ireland perhaps as long ago as 1780. Unlike the initial degrees conferred in a Masonic Lodge, which only require a belief in a Supreme Being regardless of religious affiliation, the Knights Templar is one of several additional Masonic Orders in which membership is open only to Freemasons who profess a belief in the Christian religion. The full title of this Order is The United Religious, Military and Masonic Orders of the Temple and of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta.
The story of de Molay’s brave defiance of his inquisitors has been incorporated in various forms into Masonic lore; most notably in the form of a youth group for young men aged 12 to 21, sponsored by Freemasonry, and named after the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar. DeMolay International, also known as “The Order of DeMolay,” was founded in Kansas City in 1919 by Freemason Frank S. Land.
Similar to what happens in Freemasonry, new members are ceremoniously initiated using “degrees” that are part of the Order’s secret ritual, authored, in the case of the Order of DeMolay’s ritual, by Frank A. Marshall at founder Land’s request in 1919. The first, and less dramatic of the two degrees is called “the Initiatory Degree,” wherein initiates are escorted around the meeting room and instructed in the precepts and Seven Cardinal Virtues of the Order. The second of the two degrees, known as “the DeMolay Degree,” which, along with the Initiatory Degree, members and observers are sworn to keep secret, dramatically recreates the trial, “before a Commission in its Council Chamber,” of the historic characters named in the ritual as “Jacques DeMolay and his three preceptors, Geoffroi de Charney, Godfrey de Goneville, and Hughes de Peralde.”
The DeMolay Degree, in which players dress in robes and other period costume, and appear on a dimly-lit stage whereupon they dramatically deliver memorized lines prescribed in the ritual, is described therein as depicting “the tragic climax in the career of Jacques DeMolay, the hero and martyr who is the exemplar of our Order.” The stage instructions include that “the foremost point to be remembered is to portray Jacques DeMolay as the hero and to select an interpretation for the DeMolay Degree which will enhance the lessons of fidelity and toleration.” The drama concludes with the commission condemning the four to life imprisonment; however, according to the ritual, “so incensed was the king at the noble defiance and defense of DeMolay and Geoffroi de Charney that he overrode the Commission’s verdict and hurried DeMolay and de Charney to the stake on an island near the Cathedral, where they were barbarously burned.”
1. Jacques de Molay 1244 – 1314. (2010, March 31). Retrieved from Templar history: http://blog.templarhistory.com/2010/03/jacques-de-molay-1244-1314/
2. Hodappp, C. (2009, March 18). 695th Anniversary of the Death of Jacques de Molay. Retrieved from Templar Code for Dummies blog: http://templarcodefordummies.blogspot.com/2009/03/694th-anniversary-of-death-of-jacques.html
3. Trial of the Knights Templar: Arrests, charges, and subsequent events. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trial_of_the_Knights_Templar#Arrests_charges_and_subsequent_events
4. Zolnai, A. (n.d.). Jacques de Molay. Retrieved from Project Beauceant: http://www.templiers.org/jacquesmolay-eng.php
“When you look into the abyss, the abyss also looks into you,” once you gaze into the world of the paranormal it suddenly notices you as well ~ Friedrich Nietzsche
For newbies and first time investigators into the Paranormal there is always an impatient desire to witness a true unexplainable moment of supernatural perplexity. This insatiable curiosity, while at the core of being human, drives so many to ask: what is the best way to witness and capture these events? Eager minds search for teams to join, invest in expensive equipment and look forward, with great zeal, for their chance to dabble in the unknown. But instead of asking how, many need to consider a more meaningful question: do I really want to see what’s on the other side?
For many, tormented or already living with the paranormal, it’s not a choice and never was. Speak with them candidly and you’ll find a mix of those who are just as grateful as you will those that wish they could just turn it off once and for all. But for thrill-seekers who want to have a paranormal experience, many are all too willing to throw caution to the wind all in the name of occult adventure. But just as Friedrich Nietzsche’s infamous quote warns, “When you look into the abyss, the abyss also looks into you,” once you gaze into the world of the paranormal it suddenly notices you as well.
If you (like me) are someone who never was traumatized or gifted with the paranormal, you really don’t realize what you’re getting yourself into. “Rounding the corner” as I call it, and moving past that state of not noticing and not being noticed, places you and your loved ones into a plane of both intrigue and danger. In my extensive travels and networking with several teams and specialists I noted the same 3 types of individuals within the paranormal groups. Group 1 are those who have been traumatized by a paranormal event, often affecting them and their entire family several years ago, who now want to understand and confront their own personal fears. You can say what you want, but I think these folks are pretty fearless. Group 2 are those that claim to be sensitive or have gifts within the realm of the paranormal. They often seek to explore and further their own personal education of the unknown, sometimes helping others along the way. While this group is very important there are, unfortunately, some posers that damage the reputation of the entire group instead of just the individual. Finally there is the third group, regular people (whether they are the average Joe or a legitimate scientist) who have never been a victim, witness or bear any gifts within the realm. This 3rd group, in my opinion, is the fastest growing within the field and the one with the least experience to prepare for what can happen after rounding the corner. Now, to be clear, I’m not saying anyone from the 3rd group shouldn’t pursue their interest, but if you’re in that group you need to recognize the repercussions of what can happen to you and your loved ones. While there is a long list of potential negative affects I’ll keep it very short and break it down into the basics of the physical, mental and the spiritual.
Physical ailments can range from the simple symptoms of an assault (pinch, slap, blow, scratch) that normally are brief and bear no long lasting marks, to something that may attach itself to you, causing disease and serious long lasting health effects. Many investigators report a loss of energy and general feeling of lethargy that may be isolated to just themselves or may spread throughout their entire household. Throw on top the environmental risks associated with stumbling around old buildings (asbestos, mold, etc.) and you have serious potential risks to your physical health.
Mental instability after witnessing a paranormal encounter is rarely talked about but it’s a topic worth considering. It’s one thing to see a single apparition/manifestation or disembodied voice after attending dozens of paranormal investigations (alas, your prize has been found!). It’s another if you’re visiting a friend and suddenly you witness a 8 ft. tall negative entity manifest in their living room and turn its head to look directly at you (Yes, I see you too!) Or find that the disembodied voice now comes just before bedtime when your house is quiet and a symphony of different voices start begging, “Help me!” over and over again. It’s fantastic and rare to witness and capture these types of events on an investigation, but it’s far more frightening when they start to creep in on your everyday Life.
The last, and perhaps most worthy consideration, is the possible damage to one’s spirituality. Christian, Jew, Muslim, Pagan, Atheist…..it doesn’t really matter when you step around the corner and enter the paranormal realm. For many, moments of the unexplained can be a beautiful reconfirmation of their own personal beliefs. Others find their faith tested and lacking. Nothing is more damaging than a loss of one’s faith…….This can be the start of a downward spiral. For some it’s merely a speed bump before they are back to normal. For others, it can be a dark pit of depression and oppression by the negative.
I’m very grateful that the last few years have resulted in many proactive groups and individuals speaking out on the risks of investigating the paranormal. It was something never touched upon when I started to actively investigate with my own team and working with different groups many years ago. The purpose of this article isn’t to dissuade those who want to start investigating, but rather inform them so they can realize that there are risks. Several years ago, I worked with a man who was studying to be a demonologist. He has been studying for several years and would be best described as professional, polite, sharp and studious. One day I asked him if he had any concerns for himself with his own interest and education into the realm of the paranormal. He thought about for a few seconds and said” No, I’ve always been very strong spiritually and I hope and pray that I can continue to keep a positive mindset if I ever encounter something threatening or harmful. I feel like I can take care of myself.” I nodded my head in admiration at a well-crafted answer. He stood there for a moment, contemplating before he added, “But that dark man that keeps waking my 3 year daughter old up at night. Yeah, that bothers me.”
Be careful what you ask for………..you might just get it~
Belle Mont was erected in 1828 for a physician from Louisa County, Virginia, Dr. Alexander Williams Mitchell. Dr. Mitchell and his family of seven were already living in Belle Mont when it was fully completed in 1832. Owning 1,680 acres of cotton and corn, Dr. Mitchell became known as one of the largest planters in the area before he quickly sold the mansion and the surrounding land one year after its completion.
However, while living in Belle Mont and planting the surrounding acres, Dr. Mitchell housed 152 slaves in 13 slave cabins on the property. This area of the property can be accessed from the master bedroom through a large door with a window that leads directly to the courtyard area, which is where the detached kitchen would have been accessed as well.
The Mitchell family sold Belle Mont and 33 of the surrounding acres to their friends Isaac and Catherine Baker Jones Winston, who were also from Virginia, in 1833. Mr. Winston was a cousin of Dolly Madison, Patrick Henry, and Isaac Cole, who was a personal friend and secretary of President Thomas Jefferson. Although the actual design of Belle Mont is a mystery, this particular relationship provides a clue about the original designer, or at least his influence.
The source of Belle Mont’s design is shrouded in mystery, but tantalizing clues suggest the direct influence of President Thomas Jefferson, gentlemen architect of the early Republic,” the official Belle Mont pamphlet states (Commission 2). Is it possible that Dr. Mitchell built Belle Mont in this style, two years after Jefferson’s death, to honor the late president? The answer will always be a mystery. However, the pamphlet continues by claiming that, “characteristics of ‘Jeffersonian Classicism’ are exhibited at Belle Mont, including finely executed brickwork with contrasting woodwork and a hilltop setting. Belle Mont also illustrates Jefferson’s reverence for the neoclassical architectural elements and ideas of the Italian Renaissance architect, Andrea Palladio,”
The Winston family maintained ownership and continued living in Belle Mont through the Civil War and until around 1940. At this time, the family decided to move to a different location but continued to hold Thanksgiving and Christmas celebrations in the mansion. Gradually, the family gatherings became less frequent until the home was completely abandoned.
The abandonment of the home was the largest cause of its deterioration and the vandalism that occurred at Belle Mont. During the 1960s, star-crossed lovers camped inside the rotting mansion in the woods, and the home has long been the site of drunken high school parties. In 1983, concerned about the condition of the house, members of the Winston family donated Belle Mont and 33 surrounding acres to the Alabama Historical Commission.
The house and surrounding property are reportedly haunted by the former slaves that lived and died on the plantation. As there is not formal cemetery for the slaves it is likely that they were buried on some part of the estate. Visitors to the mansion have reported seeing dark shadowy figures walking the fields and have heard the sound of chains rattling near the house.
Courtesy of: https://en.wikipedia.org
Merlin is a legendary figure best known as the wizard featured in Arthurian legend. The standard depiction of the character first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae, written c. 1136, and is based on an amalgamation of previous historical and legendary figures. Geoffrey combined existing stories of Myrddin Wyllt (Merlinus Caledonensis), a North Brythonic prophet and madman with no connection to King Arthur, with tales of the Romano-British war leader Ambrosius Aurelianus to form the composite figure he called Merlin Ambrosius (Welsh: Myrddin Emrys).
Geoffrey’s rendering of the character was immediately popular, especially in Wales. Later writers expanded the account to produce a fuller image of the wizard. Merlin’s traditional biography casts him as a cambion: born of a mortal woman, sired by an incubus, the non-human wellspring from whom he inherits his supernatural powers and abilities. The name of Merlin’s mother is not usually stated but is given as Adhan in the oldest version of the Prose Brut. Merlin matures to an ascendant sagehood and engineers the birth of Arthur through magic and intrigue. Later authors have Merlin serve as the king’s advisor until he is bewitched and imprisoned by the Lady of the Lake.
Merlin is a legendary figure best known as the wizard featured in Arthurian legend.
Name and etymology
The name “Merlin” derives from the Welsh Myrddin, the name of the bard Myrddin Wyllt, one of the chief sources for the later legendary figure. Geoffrey of Monmouth Latinised the name to Merlinus in his works. The medievalist Gaston Paris suggests that Geoffrey chose the form Merlinus rather than the regular Merdinus to avoid a resemblance to the Anglo-Norman word merde (from Latin merda), for faeces.
Clas Myrddin, or Merlin’s Enclosure, is an early name for Great Britain stated in the Third Series of Welsh Triads.
The Celticist A. O. H. Jarman suggests the Welsh name Myrddin (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈmərðɪn]) was derived from the toponym Caerfyrddin, the Welsh name for the town known in English as Carmarthen.This contrasts with the popular but false folk etymology that the town was named for the bard. The name Carmarthen derives from the town’s previous Roman name, Moridunum, itself derived from Celtic Brittonic *moridunon, “sea fortress.”
Geoffrey’s composite Merlin is based primarily on Myrddin Wyllt, also called Merlinus Caledonensis, and Aurelius Ambrosius, a mostly fictionalised version of the historical war leader Ambrosius Aurelianus. The former had nothing to do with Arthur: in British poetry he was a bard driven mad after witnessing the horrors of war, who fled civilization to become a wild man of the wood in the 6th century. Geoffrey had this individual in mind when he wrote his earliest surviving work, the Prophetiae Merlini (Prophecies of Merlin), which he claimed were the actual words of the legendary madman.
Geoffrey’s Prophetiae do not reveal much about Merlin’s background. When he included the prophet in his next work, Historia Regum Britanniae, he supplemented the characterisation by attributing to him stories about Aurelius Ambrosius, taken from Nennius’ Historia Brittonum. According to Nennius, Ambrosius was discovered when the British king Vortigern was trying to erect a tower. The tower always collapsed before completion, and his wise men told him the only solution was to sprinkle the foundation with the blood of a child born without a father. Ambrosius was rumoured to be such a child, but when brought before the king, he revealed the real reason for the tower’s collapse: below the foundation was a lake containing two dragons who fought a battle representing the struggle between the Saxons and the Britons, which struggle suggested that the tower would never stand under the leadership of Vortigern, but only under that of Ambrosius. (This is why Ambrosius is ‘given’ the kingdom, or the ‘tower’ — he tells Vortigern to go elsewhere and says ‘I will stay here’. The tower is metaphorically the kingdom, which is the notional ability to beat the Saxons.) Geoffrey retells this story in Historia Regum Britanniæ with some embellishments, and gives the fatherless child the name of the prophetic bard, Merlin. He keeps this new figure separate from Aurelius Ambrosius and, with regard to his changing of the original Nennian character, he states that Ambrosius was also called ‘Merlin’, that is, ‘Ambrosius Merlinus’. He goes on to add new episodes that tie Merlin into the story of King Arthur and his predecessors, such as the bringing of the stones for Stonehenge from Preseli Hills in south-west Wales and Ireland.
Geoffrey dealt with Merlin again in his third work, Vita Merlini. He based the Vita on stories of the original 6th-century Myrddin. Though set long after his time frame for the life of “Merlin Ambrosius”, he tries to assert the characters are the same with references to King Arthur and his death as told in the Historia Regum Britanniae.
Geoffrey’s account of Merlin Ambrosius’ early life in the Historia Regum Britanniae is based on the story of Ambrosius in the Historia Brittonum. He adds his own embellishments to the tale, which he sets in Carmarthen, Wales (Welsh: Caerfyrddin). While Nennius’ Ambrosius eventually reveals himself to be the son of a Roman consul, Geoffrey’s Merlin is begotten on a king’s daughter by an incubus. The story of Vortigern’s tower is essentially the same; the underground dragons, one white and one red, represent the Saxons and the British, and their final battle is a portent of things to come.
At this point Geoffrey inserts a long section of Merlin’s prophecies, taken from his earlier Prophetiae Merlini. He tells only two further tales of the character. In the first, Merlin creates Stonehenge as a burial place for Aurelius Ambrosius. In the second, Merlin’s magic enables Uther Pendragon to enter into Tintagel in disguise and father his son Arthur with his enemy’s wife, Igraine. These episodes appear in many later adaptations of Geoffrey’s account. As Lewis Thorpe notes, Merlin disappears from the narrative after this; he does not tutor and advise Arthur as in later versions.
Later adaptations of the legend
Several decades later, the poet Robert de Boron retold this material in his poem Merlin. Only a few lines of the poem have survived, but a prose retelling became popular and was later incorporated into two other romances. In Robert’s account, as in Geoffrey’s Historia, Merlin is begotten by a demon on a virgin as an intended Antichrist. This plot is thwarted when the expectant mother informs her confessor Blaise of her predicament; they immediately baptize the boy at birth, thus freeing him from the power of Satan. The demonic legacy invests Merlin with a preternatural knowledge of the past and present, which is supplemented by God, who gives the boy a prophetic knowledge of the future.
Robert de Boron lays great emphasis on Merlin’s power to shapeshift, on his joking personality, and on his connection to the Holy Grail. This text introduces Merlin’s master Blaise, who is pictured as writing down Merlin’s deeds, explaining how they came to be known and preserved. Robert was inspired by Wace’s Roman de Brut, an Anglo-Norman adaptation of Geoffrey’s Historia. Robert’s poem was rewritten in prose in the 12th century as the Estoire de Merlin, also called the Vulgate or Prose Merlin. It was originally attached to a cycle of prose versions of Robert’s poems, which tells the story of the Holy Grail: brought from the Middle East to Britain by followers of Joseph of Arimathea, the Grail is eventually recovered by Arthur’s knight Percival.
The Prose Merlin contains many instances of Merlin’s shapeshifting. He appears as a woodcutter with an axe about his neck, big shoes, a torn coat, bristly hair, and a large beard. He is later found in the forest of Northumberland by a follower of Uther’s disguised as an ugly man and tending a great herd of beasts. He then appears first as a handsome man and then as a beautiful boy. Years later, he approaches Arthur disguised as a peasant wearing leather boots, a wool coat, a hood, and a belt of knotted sheepskin. He is described as tall, black and bristly, and as seeming cruel and fierce. Finally, he appears as an old man with a long beard, short and hunchbacked, in an old torn woolen coat, who carries a club and drives a multitude of beasts before him (Loomis, 1927).
The Prose Merlin later came to serve as a sort of prequel to the vast Lancelot-Grail, also known as the Vulgate Cycle. The authors of that work expanded it with the Vulgate Suite du Merlin (Vulgate Merlin Continuation), which describes King Arthur’s early adventures. The Prose Merlin was also used as a prequel to the later Post-Vulgate Cycle, the authors of which added their own continuation, the Huth Merlin or Post-Vulgate Suite du Merlin.
In the Livre d’Artus, Merlin enters Rome in the form of a huge stag with a white fore-foot. He bursts into the presence of Julius Caesar and tells the emperor that only the wild man of the woods can interpret the dream that has been troubling him. Later, he returns in the form of a black, shaggy man, barefoot, with a torn coat. In another episode, he decides to do something that will be spoken of forever. Going into the forest of Brocéliande, he transforms himself into a herdsman carrying a club and wearing a wolf-skin and leggings. He is large, bent, black, lean, hairy and old, and his ears hang down to his waist. His head is as big as a buffalo’s, his hair is down to his waist, he has a hump on his back, his feet and hands are backwards, he’s hideous, and is over 18 feet tall. By his arts, he calls a herd of deer to come and graze around him (Loomis, 1927).
These works were adapted and translated into several other languages. The Post-Vulgate Suite was the inspiration for the early parts of Sir Thomas Malory’s English language Le Morte d’Arthur. Many later medieval works also deal with the Merlin legend. The Italian The Prophecies of Merlin contains long prophecies of Merlin (mostly concerned with 13th-century Italian politics), some by his ghost after his death. The prophecies are interspersed with episodes relating Merlin’s deeds and with various Arthurian adventures in which Merlin does not appear at all. The earliest English verse romance concerning Merlin is Arthour and Merlin, which drew from the chronicles and the French Lancelot-Grail.
As the Arthurian myths were retold and embellished, Merlin’s prophetic aspects were sometimes de-emphasised in favour of portraying him as a wizard and elder advisor to Arthur. On the other hand, in the Lancelot-Grail it is said that Merlin was never baptized and never did any good in his life, only evil. Medieval Arthurian tales abound in inconsistencies. A manuscript found in Bath from the 1420s simply records a “Merlyn” as having helped Uther Pendragon with his “sotelness” or subtleness, presumably but not necessarily magic. His role could be embellished and added to that of Aurelianus Ambrosius, or he could be made into one of old Uther’s favourite advisors and naught more.
In the Lancelot-Grail and later accounts, Merlin’s eventual downfall came from his lusting after a huntress named Niviane (or Nymue, Nimue, Niniane, Nyneue, or Viviane in some versions of the legend), who was the daughter of the king of Northumberland. In the Suite du Merlin, for example, Niviane is about to depart from Arthur’s court, but, with some encouragement from Merlin, Arthur asks her to stay in his castle with the queen. During her stay, Merlin falls in love with her and desires her. Niviane, frightened that Merlin might take advantage of her with his spells, swears that she will never love him unless he swears to teach her all of his magic. Merlin consents, unaware that throughout the course of her lessons, Niviane will use Merlin’s own powers against him, forcing him to do her bidding.
When Niviane finally goes back to her country, Merlin escorts her. However, along the way, Merlin receives a vision that Arthur is in need of assistance against the schemes of Morgan le Fay. Niviane and Merlin rush back to Arthur’s castle, but have to stop for the night in a stone chamber, once inhabited by two lovers. Merlin relates that when the lovers died, they were placed in a magic tomb within a room in the chamber. That night, while Merlin is asleep, Niviane, still disgusted with Merlin’s desire for her, as well as his demonic heritage, casts a spell over him and places him in the magic tomb so that he can never escape, thus causing his death.
Merlin’s death is recounted differently in other versions of the narrative; the enchanted prison is variously described as a cave (in the Lancelot-Grail), a large rock (in Le Morte d’Arthur), an invisible tower, or a tree. In his book “The Meaning of Trees: botany, history, healing, lore” Fred Hageneder writes on page 149,
“According to Breton legend, the legendary wise man Merlin climbed the Pine of Barenton (from bel nemeton, “Sacred Grove of Bel”), just as shamans climb the World Tree. Here, he had a profound revelation and he never returned to the mortal world. In later versions, Merlin’s glas tann was mistranslated as a “glass house”. It is actually a living tree (from the Cornish glas “(ever)green”, and tann, “sacred tree”), and from these words the name of Glastonbury, in Somerset, England is sometimes derived. Hence, according to legend, it is a sacred tree in which the soul of Merlin awaits his return.”
In the Prophetiae Merlini, Niviane confines him in the forest of Brocéliande with walls of air, visible as mist to others but as a beautiful tower to him (Loomis, 1927). This is unfortunate for Arthur, who has lost his greatest counselor. Another version has it that Merlin angers Arthur to the point where he beheads, cuts in half, burns, and curses Merlin.
Many parts of Arthurian fiction include Merlin as a character. Mark Twain made Merlin the villain in his 1889 novel A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court. C. S. Lewis used the figure of Merlin Ambrosius in his 1946 novel That Hideous Strength, the third book in the Space Trilogy. Merlin is also portrayed in the T. A. Barron series The Lost Years of Merlin and The Great Tree of Avalon, where his teenage years on the island of Fincayra and later life defending Avalon are featured. In Robert Holdstock’s Merlin Codex, a trilogy of mythic fiction novels, Merlin’s adventures in Europe before the time of King Arthur are detailed, placing him alongside Jason and the Argonauts, and Urtha Pendragon. Merlin is mentioned several times throughout J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series. His chocolate frog card reads; “Medieval, dates unknown. Most famous wizard of all time. Sometimes known as the Prince of Enchanters. Part of the Court of King Arthur.”
Merlin is a major character in T. H. White’s collection The Once and Future King (1938 onwards; full version 1958) and the related The Book of Merlyn. Mary Stewart produced an influential quintet of Arthurian novels, with Merlin as the protagonist in the first three: The Crystal Cave (1970), The Hollow Hills (1973) and The Last Enchantment (1979). John Gloag’s 1977 novel Artorius Rex draws on history to tell the story of Arthur. Merlin plays a modern-day villain in Roger Zelazny’s short story “The Last Defender of Camelot” (1979), which won the 1980 Balrog Award for short fiction and was adapted into an episode of the television series The Twilight Zone in 1986. Kristine Papin Morris explores Merlin’s emotional childhood in the Merlin of Carmarthen series featuring Merlin of Carmarthen and Merlin of Calidon. Merlin’s Mirror, by Andre Norton, tells the story of the half-human, half-alien Merlin.
In the series The Chronicles of the Imaginarium Geographica by James A. Owen Merlin is from a place known as the Archipelago of Dreams where he was born Myrdyyn along with his twin brother, Madoc (who would later on become Mordred). He is portrayed as an ambitious and treacherous man who was banished from the Archipelago for trying to use knowledge of the future to shape it. He soon becomes a caretaker of the Holy Grail in the library of Alexandria, but is soon arrested for trying to steal it. He is able to escape however, and banish his brother in his place. He then travels to Britain (then called Albion) and changes his name to Merlin. Sometime after this, he becomes the apparent father of Arthur through the Lady of the Lake.
Merlin is an important figure in films and television programs, where he functions often as a teacher or mentor figure, a role that he shares with other wizard and wizard-like figures in popular texts, such as Gandalf the White. One of the best known of the film Merlins is the Merlin of the 1963 animated Disney film The Sword in the Stone, based on T. H. White’s novel of the same name. In the 1967 episode Merlin, the Magician from the TV show The Time Tunnel, Merlin is portrayed by Christopher Cary. The character, played by Nicol Williamson, has a large role in the 1981 film Excalibur. Laurence Naismith appears as Merlyn in the film version of the musical play Camelot (based on T. H. White’s The Once and Future King). In the 1998 miniseries Merlin, the protagonist Merlin (played by actor Sam Neill) battled the pagan goddess Queen Mab.
In 1981, the television series Mr. Merlin featured Merlin living undercover in modern-day San Francisco. In 2006 and 2007, the television series Stargate SG-1 used Merlin and Arthurian legend as major plot points. In 2005, Merlin appeared as leader of the Woads of Britton and father to Guinevere in King Arthur. Also in 2007, the film The Last Legion portrayed Merlin (initially called Ambrosinus) as a druid and tutor of both the last Roman Emperor Romulus Augustus Caesar, as well as of his son Arthur.
In 1985, Merlin was portrayed in the arcade game Gauntlet (arcade game). His role in the game series continued until Gauntlet 4 for the Sega Genesis. Merlin is also featured in the mythology of DC Comics, often in association with the demon character Etrigan. As a result, he has appeared in various animated series, including Justice League and Batman: The Brave and the Bold.
In 2005 Merlin appeared in the British animated series King Arthur’s Disasters where he was voiced by Matt Lucas. BBC’s version of Merlin, as played by Colin Morgan.
In 2008, the BBC created a television series called Merlin, where a young adult Merlin portrayed by Colin Morgan attempts to help Arthur (Bradley James) become king. Merlin was the protagonist of the 2008 fantasy film Merlin and the War of the Dragons. The 1989 Doctor Who episode Battlefield suggests that Arthurian legend in our world is influenced by actual events in a parallel world, and that the Doctor is himself Merlin.
In the 2010 film The Sorcerer’s Apprentice, modern day New Yorker David Stutler, played by Jay Baruchel, discovers he is the last descendant of Merlin, portrayed by James A. Stephens, and is trained as a sorcerer by Balthazar Blake, portrayed by Nicolas Cage, a former student of the great wizard, so that he may ultimately do battle with Merlin’s old nemesis Morganna, played by Alice Krige.In the 2011 TV series Camelot, Merlin was played by Joseph Fiennes. Ashley Cowie, Scottish author, historian, and archaeologist, and his team search the U.K. for treasures said to have been hidden away by Merlin in the 5th episode of season 1’s “Legend Quest”. A main belt asteroid is named Merlin in honour of the legendary wizard. Merlin is a character in the MMO role-playing games Wizard101 (under the alias of Merle Ambrose, a take on the name Merlin Ambrosius) and RuneScape. In the role-playing game Magic and Mayhem, Merlin is the game’s final antagonist.
You can also check out 21 lessons of Merlyn, The Lost Books of Merlyn, The Deep Teachings of Merlyn by: Douglas Monroe
The word photography was first coined by scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839. The word comes from two Greek words meaning “light” (photo) and “to draw” (graphein). However it wasn’t until around 1000 AD that the first pinhole camera was invented by the Arab scholar Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham), who was known as the “Father of Modern Optics” by the scientific community. The pinhole camera, known as the Camera Obscura (Latin for “dark room”), was simply a closed box with a hole on one side of it where light would come through the tiny hole to create an image on the wall of the box of the outside scene that was mirrored and appeared upside down. It was often used by artists to make sketches in the field.
[pullquote align=”left|center|right” textalign=”left|center|right” width=”30%”]
Photography comes from two Greek words meaning “light” (photo) and “to draw” (graphein).[/pullquote]The first photograph was actually taken during the summer of 1827 by Joseph Nicephore Niepce using the Camera Obscura. Prior to this these cameras were used for viewing or drawing. Niepce’s photograph were called heliographs or sun prints and were the prototype so to speak for today’s photographs in using light to draw pictures. By placing an engraving onto a metal plate coated in bitumen then exposing it to light Niepce was able to make his photographs. This process took eight hours of light exposure to create.
The Museum of Modern Art has on their website some interesting information surrounding the Camera Obscura to check out.
|Camera : Artist’s Camera Obscura
Date : 18th Century
|Camera : Sliding Box Camera
Date : c1850s
|Camera : Voigtländer / Petzval lens
Manufacturer : Voigtländer & Sons
Date : c1841
|Camera : The Tourograph
Manufacturer : E & T Underwood
Date : c1897
|Camera : Stereo Weno
Manufacturer : Blair Camera Co.
Date : 1902-1903
|Camera : The Kodak
Manufacturer : Eastman Dry Plate & Film Co.
Date : 1888-1889
|Camera : Box Tengor
Manufacturer : Zeiss Ikon
Date : c1925-1956
|Camera : No. 3A Folding Pocket Kodak
Manufacturer : Eastman Kodak
Date : 1903-1915
|Camera : “Pre-Anniversary” Speed Graphic
Manufacturer : Graflex
Date : c1928 – 1939
|Camera : Exakta A
Manufacturer : Ihagee
Date : 1932-c1940
|Camera : Rolleiflex
Manufacturer : Franke & Heidecke
Date : 1929-1932
|Camera : Leica II
Manufacturer : Ernst Leitz
Date : 1932-1948
|Camera : Retina Type 117
Manufacturer : Kodak (Germany)
Date : 1934-1935
|Camera :Polaroid Land 95
Manufacturer : Polaroid
Date : 1948-1953
|Camera : Hasselblad 1600F
Manufacturer : Hasselblad
Date : 1948-1952
|Camera : Nikon F
Manufacturer : Nippon Kogaku
Date : 1959
|Camera : Topcon RE Super
Manufacturer : Tokyo Kogaku
Date : 1963
|Camera : Instamatic 110
Manufacturer : Kodak
Date : c 1972
|Camera : A-1
Manufacturer : Canon
Date : c 1985
|Camera : Disc-7
Manufacturer : Minolta
Date : c 1984
|Camera : Nikon AF
Manufacturer : Nikon
Date : c 1984
|Camera : 7000
Manufacturer : Minolta
Date : 1985
|Camera : Quicksna
Manufacturer : Fuji
Date : 1988
|Camera : DCS 420
Manufacturer : Kodak / Nikon
Date : 1994
|Camera : Advantix
Manufacturer : Kodak
Date : 1996
|Camera : MX-2700
Manufacturer : Fuji
Date : 1999
|Camera : EOS D30
Manufacturer : Canon
Date : 2000
|Camera : J-SH04
Manufacturer : Sharp
Date : 2000
|Camera : NDigital
Manufacturer : Contax
Date : 2002
Cell Phone Cameras
- iPhone 5s, 8 MP, dual LED flash
- Samsung Galaxy S5, 16 MP, can focus and take a photo in .3 seconds
- Nokia Lumia 1020, 41 MP, sensor, good in low light
- Sony Xperia Z2, 20.7 MP, good for viewing HD photos and video
- LG GS, 13 MP, good laser guided auto focus
Name: Sara Cochran
Team, organization, or location name
Paranormal Detective Socitey
We are a young but very well educated group trained by some well know
investigators. Our mission is to help any one who might be
experiencing paranormal activity in their home and/or place of
business. We keep all of our investigations confidential unless the
client gives us permission to release evidence of our investigation.
We don’t charge a fee for the work that is provided. We do everything
in our power to debunk any kind of activity and we do a thorough
research of our investigation before we consider it to be paranormal
of any nature.You can call or email me with the above information or you can also message me on Facebook and I
will get back to you as soon as possible.
Chris Frost/Benjamin Pettis
A LITTLE BIT ABOUT US
We are a team of like minded individuals based in Summerville, SC
(Just outside of Charleston, SC). Our team’s goal is to explore the
possibilities of life after death.
Within our time in existence we have completed many investigations
both as public events and private ones. Our main aim is exploring
possible paranormal activity and trying to gain evidence, either for
paranormal activity or debunking through scientific means (usually
with the assistance of audio and video equipment). We respect our
clients through confidential agreements, and therefore not all
investigation reports are public. Most of the EVP’s posted on either
the Facebook page or website will contain evidence gathered on our
teams own investigations at historical sites.
We enter each investigation on the basis of looking for a physical
explanation, not a paranormal one. We take each investigation very
seriously. WE ARE A NON – PROFIT GROUP. We investigate possible
haunted locations because it is a passion for the team. It is not a
money making business. Unfortunately this does not mean everything is
free of charge for us. It does mean however that contributions help
fund investigations, weather the fuel we use or equipment that
constantly needs batteries and updates!
If you think somewhere, indoors or outside, is possibly haunted please
feel free to send us a private Facebook PM or share your story on the
– Ben and Chris